CH3:Biological Basis of Behavior

  1. resting potential
    • electrical charge of axon in its inactive state
    • negative potassium ions while outside consists of positive sodium ions when it fires
  2. somatic nervous system
    sends information to the central nervous system, sense organs, & voluntary muscles
  3. limbic system
    middle layer of brain involved in emotion & memory
  4. adrenal glands
    produces steroid hormons such as cortisol used in the fight or flight response
  5. pons
    brain-stem structure that regulates brain activity during sleep & dreaming
  6. thyroid gland
    stimulates & maintains metabolic (basic) activities
  7. reticular formation
    arouses the cortex to keep brain alert & attentive to new stimulation
  8. action potential
    nerve impulse caused by a change in the electrical charge across the cell membrane of the axon
  9. frontal lobes
    involved in movement & thinking
  10. plasticity
    nervous system's ability to adapt or change as the result of experience, help nervous system adapt to physical change
  11. interneuron
    transmits messages between nerve cells
  12. hippocampus
    involved in establishing long-term memories
  13. nodes of ranvier
    spaces between segments of myelin on axons of neurons
  14. pineal gland
    endocrine gland in the brain that produces melatonin & helps regulate circadian rythms associated with seasonal affective disorder
  15. cerebellum
    "little brain" attached to the brain stem, responsible for coordinated movements, memory, balance
  16. Klinefelter's Syndrome
    males with XXY sex chromosomes
  17. axon
    in nerve cell, extended fiber that conducts info from soma to terminal buttons; travels along in form of electrical charge
  18. synaptic transmission
    relaying of information across the synapse by means of chemical neuro transmitters
  19. peripheral nervous system
    autonomic & somatic nervous systems
  20. medulla
    controls breathing & heart rate
  21. amygdala
    involved in fear & agression
  22. phenotype
    observable physical characteristics
  23. aphasia
    impairment of language caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's ares
  24. association cortex
    cortical regions throughout the brain that combine info from various other parts of the brain
  25. lesions
    precise destruction of brain tissue
  26. parasympathetic nervous system
    monitors the routine operations of the internal organs & returns the body to calmer funtioning after arousal by the sympathetic division
  27. sex chromosomes
    • X & Y chromosomes that determine our physical sex characteristics
    • males- XY
    • females- XX
  28. Broca's Area
    located in the frontal lobe, directs the muscle movements in speech
  29. Down Syndrome
    usually three copies of chromosome 21 in their cells leads to mental retardation, a defect in physical features, & poor muscle tone & coordination
  30. FMRI
    (functional magnetic resonance imaging)
    type of MRT that reveals which parts of the brain are more active during various mental activities
  31. corpus collasum
    band of nerve cells that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
  32. parietal lobes
    cortical areas lying toward the back & top of the brain, involved in touch sensation & in perceiving spatial relationships, body position
  33. agonist
    drug or other chemical that enhances or mimics the effects of neurotransmitters
  34. synapse
    microscopic gap that serves as a communications link between neurons, also occur between neurons & muscles or glands they serve
  35. gene
    each DNA segment of a chromosome that determines a trait (physical & mental characteristics)
  36. endorphins
    natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control & pleasure
  37. central nervous system
    brain & spinal cord,reflexes
  38. Wernicke's Area
    located in the temporal lobe, controls language comprehension
  39. genotype
    organism's genetic make-up for a trait
  40. dopamine
    • neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention, & emotion
    • associated with Schizophrenia & Parkinson's disease
  41. PET Scan
    (positron emission tomography)
    imaging technique that relies on the detection of radioactive sugar consumed by active brain cells
  42. acetycholine
    • neurotransmitter that enables muscle action, learning, & memory
    • associated with Alzheimer's
  43. hypothalamus
    serves as the brain's blood-testing lab, constantly monitoring blood to determine the condition of the body, maintenince activities
  44. sertonin
    • neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep, & arousal
    • undersupply linked to depression
  45. all-or-none principle
    refers to the fact that the action potential in the axon occurs either full-blown or not at all
  46. moto neuron (efferent neuron)
    carries messages towards the muscles & glands
  47. dendrite
    branched fiber extends outward from main cell body & carries information into the neuron
  48. natural selection
    driving force behind evolution, environment "selects" fittest organism
  49. synaptic vesicle
    small "container" holding neurotransmitter molecules that then connects to the presynaptic membrane, releasing the neurtransmitter into the synapse
  50. nervous system
    • entire network of neurons in the body
    • central, peripheral, & their subdivisions
  51. sensory neuron (afferent neuron)
    nerve cell that carries messages from the sense receptors toward the central nervous system
  52. parathyroids
    endocrine glands in neck which help maintain calcium ion level in blood necessary for normal functioning of neurons
  53. brain stem
    • where spinal cord swells as it enters skull, oldest structure
    • medulla, pons, reticular formation
  54. pancreas
    regulates glucose
  55. Huntington's Disease
    • dominant gene defect that involves degeneration of the nervous system
    • characterized by trmors, jerky motions, blindness, & death
  56. antogonist
    drug or other chemical that inhibits the effects of neurotransmitters
  57. chromosome
    tightly coiled threadlike structure that contains genes determined by DNA sequences
  58. endocrine system
    hormone system, body's chemical messenger system
  59. pituitary gland
    "master gland" that produces hormones influencing the secretions of all other endocrine glands
  60. temporal lobes
    cortical lobes incolced in speaking, learning, & hearing
  61. Turner's Syndrome
    females with only one X sex chromosome
  62. motor cortex
    narrow vertical strip of cortex in the frontal lobes, controls voluntary movement
  63. biopsychology
    studies interaction of biology, behavior, & mental processes
  64. sympathetic division
    part of autonomic nervous system; arouse, accelerate blood pressure, & heartbeat
  65. autonomic nervous system
    portion of peripheral nervous system invovled with muscles of internal organs
  66. soma
    part of cell contains nucleus & chromosomes
  67. thalamus
    brain's central "relay station"
  68. somatosensory cortex occipital lobes
    involved with sensations of touch
  69. EEG
    device for recording brain waves, typically by electrodes placed on the scalp
  70. GABA
    • major inhibitory neurotransmitter
    • linkes to anxiety disorders & insomnia
  71. DNA
    long, complex molecule that encodes genetic characteristics
  72. norepinephrine
    • neurotransmitter that helps control alertness & arousal
    • undersupply linked to depression
  73. glial cells
    cells that bind the neurons together, provide insulating covering (myelin sheath) of the axon for some neurons
  74. CT Scan
    (computerized tomography)
    computerized imaging technique that uses X-rays passed through the brain at various angles and then combined into an image
  75. ovaries & testes
    gonads in females & males respectively produce hormones necessary for reproduction & developing secondary sex characteristics
  76. terminal buttons
    tiny bulblike structures at the end of the axon, contains neurotransmitters that carry the neuron's message into the synapse
  77. cerebral cortex
    outer most layer, "higher" mental processing
  78. hormone
    chemical messenger used by endocrine system, many serve as neurotransmitter
  79. visual cortex
    visual processing areas of cortex in occipital & temporal lobes
  80. MRI
    (magnetic resonance imaging)
    • relies on cell's responses in a high-intensity magnetic field & radio waves
    • looks at different types of soft tissue
    • looks at brain structure
  81. neurotransmitters
    chemical messengers that relay neural messages across the synapse
  82. neuron
    • cell that recieves, prcess, & transmits information to other cells in the body
    • building blocks of nervous system
Card Set
CH3:Biological Basis of Behavior
Biological psychology