An organism, such as a bacterium, that live only in the presence of oxygen.
What are two examples of obligate aerobes?
Living without oxygen.
Can only live in the absence of oxygen.
No growth on agar surfaces exposed to O2 levels higher than 0.5%
strick obligate anaerobe
Strict obligate anaerobes lack what three enzymes?
Can grow when exposed to oxygen levels ranging from about 2% to 8% (3%).
moderate obligate anaerobes
What are four examples of moderate obligate anaerobes?
This enzyme catalyses the conversion of superoxide radicals to less toxic hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen.
Limited or scant growth on agar at room air or in a 5%-10% CO2 incubator
Aerotolerant anerobes show good growth under _________ conditions.
Can live in the absence as well as in the presence of atmospheric O2.
what are two examples of falcultative anerobes?
Grows only under reduced oxygen tension.
This is also known as Redox.
How is oxidation-reduction potential measured?
oxidation-reduction potential is affected by what?
oxidation-reduction potential is expressed as what pH?
In oxydation-reduction potential the higher the pH the ______ O2 level and vice versa.
what are two media used for oxidation-reduction potential?
This bacteria is formally Bacteroides melaninogenicus group.
Prevotella melaninogenica group
What is the species of Bacteroides?
what are the two species of Fusobacterium?
What are the five Clostridium species?
What are the two Peptostreptoccus species?
What is the Veillonella species?
What are the two Propionibacterium species?
what is the Actinomyces species?
True or false
B. fragilis is a nonmotile, GNR, cocobacilli, or straight bacilli, that is encapsulated.
B. Fragilis group growth is enhance by what?
B. fragilis is resistant to what three antibiotics?
B. fragilis is predominant flora of _______.
B. fragilis is found in what three infections below the diaphragm?
intra-abdominal and liver abscesses
soft tissue infections and bacteremia
B. fragilis is found in what dental and oral infection?
This is the most common species found on the CDC anaerobic blood agar.
This anaerobe is 1-4 mm, nonhemolytic, gray entire, semi-opaque, concentric whorls, ringlike structure on the CDC anaerobic blood agar.
What are the following results for B. fragilis?
These anaerobic, pleomorphic GNB are nonmotile, long, slender rods with tapered ends. Found in the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and upper respiratory tract.
Fusobacterium are resistant to what antibiotic? susceptible to?
Susceptible: Kanamycin and Colistin
These anarobes are implicated in lower respiratory tact, head and neck, perodontium, gingivae, and CNS, but most frequently involved in pleuroplumonary infections.
What three pleuropulmonary infections are Fusobacterium associated with?
This is the most common species of Fusobacterium and is important in head, neck and lower respiratory infections.
This Anaerobe appears as rough breadcrumbs, convex, and glistening on the BAP and fluoresce under UV light.
Early detection of F. nucleatum is made durring ______ microscopic exam.
What are the following results for F. nuicleatum?
Bile susceptiblity: =
This anaerobe has the ability to cause serious infections, especially post-anginal sepsis (Lemierre's syndrome).
this Anaerobe is slightly hemolytic (greenish) on the BAP and produces lipase on the LD egg yolk agar.
F. necrophorum is susceptible to what antibiotic?
how many Biovars of F. necrophorum exist?
What are the following results for F. necrophorum?
20% bile: S
What three tests differentiate F. necrophorum from F. nucleatum?
How many species of the Prevotella melaninogenica group have been isolated?
This anaerobe has a tan to light brown pigment demonstated on the laked rabbit blood agar.
Prevotella melaninogenica group
Pigment of Prevotella melaninogenica group requires how many days?
colonies of Prevotella melaninogenica group floresce what color in UV light?
This gram positive aerobe may resemble a tennis racket.
This gram positive aerobe may resemble a spindle.
These gram positive aerobes live in soil and sludge, human and animal intestinal tract, and fecal organisms.
80% of this aerobe is involved with gas gangrene.
C. perfringens is the ___ common agent of food-borne disease from contaminated meat.
This anaerobe causes necrotizing bowel disease, Darmrand (fire bowels) disease, septicemia, and intravascular hemolysis following abortion
This anaerobe has a double zone of hemolysis on the blood agar, 1-3 mm, flat, rhizoid, and raised centrally. It spreads but does not swarm and is non motile. It has lecithinase production of the egg-yolk agar.
This organism is a GPR that resembles a box car, it is reverse camp positive, and lecithinase positive.
This is a life threatening, heat labile toxin that causes a neuroparalytic, decending flaccid paralysis, with death due to respiratory paralysis.
This occurs in children less than one year old, due to a lack of normal flora to suppress clostridium, neurotoxin multiplies in the gut.
infant botulism is frequently seen caused by what food product?
This botulism is caused by toxins in imporoperly prepared/stored food.
food borne botulism
C. botulinum is isolated from feces, serum or gastric contents and confirmed in ________ lab.
This anaerobe is seen in puncture wounds, laceration, crush injuries and fecal contamination of umbilical cord, it may cause tetanospasmin.
Symptoms of this anerobe include spastic muscle contractions, lockjaw, trismus (risus sardonicus) smile, and contractions of back muscle.
true or false
C. tetani is preventable via vaccine.
What is the appearance of C. tetani on the anerobe blood agar?
swarming, produces spores
This anaerobe is isolated from fatal infections of malignancy, carcinoma of colon, cecum, and breast, or hematologic malignancies.
This is a swarmer that resembles a "medusa head" on the CDC anaerobic blood agar.
This is an agent in AAD and PMC associated with relapse of nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), strangulation of bowel, and SIDS
This anaerobic GPC makes up 30% of anaerobes isolated from infections, and is normal flora of the bowel, female genital tract, and oral cavity.
Presence of gram positve cocci on GS and NO GROWTH recovered on aerobic culture suggests the presence of what?
This Anaerobe produces larger and more opaque colonies on the BAP, is susceptible to sodium polyanetholsulfonate, and produces isocaproic acid.
This appears to be the most virulent Peptostreptococcus, it is isolated in pure culture especially bone and joint infections, produces collagenase.
This anaerobic GNC is seldom seen as a pathogen, produces a Red fluorescence under UV light.
V. parvula are differentiated by their _____ products of metabolism.
what are the following results for Veillonella parvula?
Nitrate reduction: +
This is the most common GP, non spore former encountered. It resembles chinese letters, birds of flight, and picket fence.
Propionibacterium acnes is a contaminant of ________ cultures, associated with endocarditis and CNS shunts.
Propionibacterium acnes is a punctiform obligate anaerobe that may produce a zone of _________ on the anerobic blood agar.
This GPR is a variable short diptheroid that causes actinomycosis and produces sulfer granules.
This anaerobie appears as rough colonies or branched rods known as spider colonies.
After 7-14 days, colonies of Actinomyces israelii appear raised with irregular or lobate margins called what?
molar tooth colonies
This is an anaerobic GP diphtheroid, forms rods that terminate in clubs or thick bifurcated ends that resemble dog bones.
This is a broad spectrum, non-inhibitory media used for anaerobic isolation.
CDC anaerobic blood agar
This is a non selective solid media used to determine lecithinase and lipase production of anaerobes.
egg yolk agar
which anaerobic media contains 5% sheeps blood, yeast extract, hemin, L-cystine, Vit K1.
CDC anaerobic blood agar
This selective solid media is used to differentiate bacteroides group.
bacteroides bile esculin (BBE)
This Selective solid media is used to inhibit GNR and Swarming Clostridia.
Anaerobe Phenylethyl Alcohol Blood Agar
The Laked Kanamycin-Vancomycin Blood Agar is selective for what two anaerobes.
The Anaerobe Paromomycin Vancomycin Laked blood agar is selective for what three Anaerobes?
Bacteroides fragilis group
This non-selective liquid media is used for good growth of essentially all anaerobes.
This non-selective liquid media is used for cultivation of anaerobes.
Chopped meat-glucose medium
What are the three approved anaerobic collection and transport kits?
rubber stoppered vails
O2-free transport systems for swabs
anaerobic plastic pouch
if anaerobes are _____ borne, send to public health.
CO2 and H2 generated in a closed environment containing a palladium catalyst is the principle of what?
in the presence of fresh _______ catalyst, H2 combines elemental oxygen= water, removing O2 from system, leaving CO2 as primary gas.
true or false
surfaces of decubitus ulcers can be cultured anaerobically.
Anaerobe jars should be secured ______ tight.
Anaerobe jar should be check how soon after closing to assure proper condition is present.
what is the indicator strip used in the anaerobe jar?
methylene blue strip
when is the indicator strip checked in the anaerobe jar?
what color on the indicator strip indicates anaerobic conditon?
what color on the indicator strip indicates the anaerobe jar failed.
how many swabs are submitted for anaerobic gram stains?