CH2:Research Methods

  1. case study
    intensive investigation of the behavior & mental processes associated with a specific person or situation
  2. experimental condition/experimental group
    condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment
  3. single-blind procedure
    research design in which participants don't know whether they are in the experimental group or control group
  4. independent variable
    factor the researcher manipulates in a controlled experiment (the cause)
  5. mode
    measure of central tendency for distribution, score that occurs more often than any other
  6. range
    the difference between the highest & lowest values in a frequency distribution
  7. controls
    constraints the experimenter places on the experiment to ensure each subject has the same exact conditions
  8. median
    measure of central tendency for a distribution score that seperates upper half of scores from lower half
  9. expectancy bias
    researcher allowing his or her expectations to affect the outcome of a study
  10. double-blind study
    experimental procedure in which both researchers & participants are uninformed about the nature of the independent variable being administered
  11. replicate
    repetition of the methods used in a previous experiment to see whether the same methods will yield the same results
  12. survey
    questions are asked to subjects, can't be skewed or biased towards an answer
  13. control condition/control group
    condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition & serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
  14. histogram
    bar graph depicting a frequency distribution, height of bars-frequency of a group of scores
  15. cross-sectional study
    study when a representative cross section of the population is tested or surveyed at one specific time
  16. longitudinal study
    type of study where one group of subjects is followed & observed for an extended period of time (years)
  17. hypothesis
    prediction how two or more factors are likely to be related or the outcome of a scientific study, testable idea
  18. scientific method
    five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesis under conditions designed to control biases & subjective judgments
  19. mean
    measure of central tendency, used to describe a set of data-calculated by adding all scores and dividing by number of scores
  20. dependent variable
    the behavior or mental process that is measured in an experiment or quasi-experiment (effect)
  21. personal/observer bias
    researcher allowing personal beliefs to affect outcome of a study
  22. significant difference
    psychologists accept a difference between groups as "real" when the probability is 5%
  23. variability
    spread or dispersion of a set of research data or distribution
  24. confounding/extraneous variable
    variables that have an unwanted influence on the outcome of an experiment
  25. correlational study
    type of research that is mainly statistical in nature (determines the relationship between 2 varibales)
  26. random sample
    sample group of subjects selected by chance (without biased selection techniques)
  27. illusory correlation
    perception of a relationship where none exists
  28. experiment
    research where researcher controls all the conditions & direct manipulates the conditions & independent variable
  29. correlational coefficient
    number between -1 & +1 expressing the degree of relationship between two variable
  30. inferential statistics
    statistical techniques used to asses if the results of a study are reliable or if they are simply the result of chance
  31. correlation
    relationship between variables, where changes in one variable are reflected in changes in the other variable
  32. standard deviation
    measure of variability that indicates the average difference between the scores and their mean
  33. representative sample
    sample obtained so that it reflects the distribution of important variables in the larger population where the researchers are interested
  34. frquency distribution
    summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
  35. percentile score
    percentage of scores at or below a particular score
  36. quasi-experiment
    measurement of DV when random assignment to groups is not possible
  37. naturalistic observation
    research method where the subjects are observed in their natural environment
  38. operational definition
    description of the specific procedure used to determine the presence of a variable, exact operations
  39. normal distribution
    bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristic throughout a population
  40. descriptive statistics
    statistical procedures used to describe characteristics & responses of groups of subjects
  41. cohort-sequential study
    research method where a cross section of the population is chosen then each cohort is followed for a short period of time
  42. placebo effect
    experimental resuls caused by expectations alone
  43. random assignment
    division of the sample into groups so that every individual has an equal chance of being put in any group or condition
Card Set
CH2:Research Methods