Chapter 32 Animals

  1. Unique traits of animals
    • multicellular
    • ingest their food
    • move under their own power at some point during their life cycle
    • extracellular matrix
    • muscle tissue
    • nervous system
    • no alternation of generation
  2. heterotroph
    obtain carbon compounds from other organisms
  3. primary producer
    produce their own carbon from inorganic elements
  4. consumer
    eat producer and other organisms
  5. body plan and the 4 main features
    animal's architecture

    • - number of tissue layers around embryos
    • - type of body symmetry and degree of cephalization (nervous system focus in one point - head)
    • - fluid-filled body cavity?
    • - development of embryo
  6. tissue
    cells in integrated structural/functional units
  7. epithelium
    tightly joined cells that covers the surface
  8. diploblasts
    two types of tissue layers in embryo
  9. triploblasts
    embryos with three types of tissue layers
  10. germ layers
    organization of tissue layers
  11. ectoderm
    • outer layer
    • forms the skin and nervous system
  12. endoderm
    • inner layer
    • lining of digestive tract
  13. mesoderm
    • only in triploblasts
    • gelatinous material between endoderm and ectoderm
    • forms circulatory system, muscle, bones, organs
  14. In diploblasts, the endoderm and ectoderm form...
    muscle (ecto) and reproductive tissue (endo)
  15. Cnidaria
    • diploblast
    • (jellyfish, corals, anemone, sea pens)
  16. Ctenophora
    • diploblast
    • comb jellies
  17. radial symmetry
    • at least 2 planes of symmetry
    • radiates outward like spokes on a wheel
    • most live in the water or are attached to a substrate
  18. bilateral symmetry
    • long, narrow body
    • allowed for cephalization (feeding/sensory focused on one end, locomotion on the other end)
    • better for catching food if movement is directed by head region and powered by posterior region -> rapid, directed movement and hunting
  19. coelom
    enclosed, fluid-filled cavity
  20. coelemates
    triploblasts with coelom
  21. pseudocoelom
    coelom that forms within the mesoderm itself
  22. hydrostatic skeleton
    skeletons comprised of enclosed, fluid-filled chambers - the water cannot be compressed
  23. Bilateria
    group of organisms that have been bilaterally symmetric at some point in their life cycle
  24. Protostomes
    most animal speicies
  25. Deuterostomes
    chordates and echinoderms
  26. cleavage
    rapid series of mitotic divisions that occurs in absence of growth
  27. spiral cleavage
    helical arrangement of cells due to arrangement of mitotic spindles (mostly in protostomes)
  28. radial cleavage
    cells stack on top of each other after cleavage (mostly in deuterostomes)
  29. gastrulation
    • cell mvts that forms the 3 tissue layers in embryo
    • cell moves into center of embryo, causing a pore to open
  30. gastrulation in protostomes
    forms the mouth first and the anus later
  31. gastrulation in deuterostomes
    forms the anus first and then the mouth
  32. coelem formation in protostomes
    cavities form in mesoderm to form coelem
  33. coelem formation in deuterostomes
    layers of mesodermal cells on the side of the gut that pinches off to form the coelem
  34. tube within a tube
    • inner tube = animals' gut
    • outer tube = body wall
    • mesoderm in between forms the organs and muscles
  35. closest living relatives to animals
  36. most basal animal phylum
    porifera (sponges)
  37. sessile
    adults live permanently attached to a substrate
  38. choanocytes
    sponge feeding cells (food is trapped and ingested)
  39. most ancient group
    bilaterally symmetric triploblast (Acoelomorpha)
  40. ecysozoa
    • one branch of protostomes
    • arhtropods and nematodes
    • grow by shedding their external skeleton and growing their body
  41. lophotrochozoa
    • other branch of protostomes
    • molluscs and annelids
    • grow by extending the size of their skeletons
  42. segmentation
    when the body is divided into repeated structures
  43. vertebrate
    • monophyletic lineage
    • defined by presence of a skull and backbone
  44. What normally causes diversification of species within a lineage?
    innovative methods for feeding and eating
  45. suspension feeding (filter feeder)
    filter out/concentrate particles suspended in air/water
  46. deposit feeder
    • digest organic matter in soil as they burrow through
    • simple mouthparts, wormlike body structure
    • variety of lineages
    • ex. sea cucumbers
  47. fluid feeder
    • suck/mop up liquids (nectar, plant sap, blood, fruit juice)
    • many lineages
    • mouthparts that can pierce seeds
  48. mass feeder
    • take chunks of food into their mouths
    • mouths depend on type of food ingested
  49. radula
    feeding structure like a rasp/file to scrape off material on plant/algae
  50. endoparasite
    • live inside their hosts and absorb nutrients from host
    • wormlike bodies
  51. ectoparasites
    • live outside host
    • mouthparts that pierce the skin and absorb nutrients
  52. What is the function of locomotion?
    • find food
    • find mates
    • escaping from predators
    • limbs are homologous (inherited from same ancestor)
  53. distal-less
    gene that helps form limbs during development
  54. internal fertilization
    sperm-transfer organ is placed into body of female
  55. external fertilization
    • common in aquatic species
    • females lay eggs into open water/males shed sperm on or near eggs
  56. viviparous
    • "live bearing" - nourish embryos inside body
    • give birth to live young
  57. oviparous
  58. ovoviviparous
    keep eggs inside the body, but the egg is nourished by the yolk and not the mother
  59. holometabolous
    • form of metamorphosis
    • juvenile from (larvae) is different from adult form
    • creates a "pupa" in between juvenile and adult form
    • more popular because the juveniles and adults are feeding on different things = less competition
  60. hemimetabolous
    juvenile form is called a nymph (look like mini adults)
  61. complete metamorphosis
    cnidarians - polyp (sessile form) alternates with a medusa (free-floating)
  62. colony
    group of identical individuals that are physically attached
Card Set
Chapter 32 Animals
Notecards for Chapter 32 Intro to Animals by Freeman