Q&A- Back

  1. What are the two major parts of a typical vertebra?
    Body and Arch
  2. List the 7 processes of a typical vertebra.
    1 spine, 2 transverse processes, 4 articular processes (2 cranial and 2 caudal)
  3. Where do the spinal nerves leave the vertebral canal?
    Intervertebral foramen (the Woodstock/ horse)
  4. What is formed by all of the vertebral foramina of all the vertebrae?
    Vertebral canal
  5. What is the laminae of the vertebrae?
    Roof (top of arch) of vertebral foramen
  6. What is the interarcuate space?
    Dorsal gap between adjacent vertebral arches
  7. With what does the atlas (C1) articulate?
    Occipital condyles of skull
  8. What are the large lateral masses of the atlas?
    Wings of atlas (transverse processes)
  9. What peg-like process on the axis forms a pivot articulation with the atlas (C2)?
  10. What is the large ventral projection of the 6th cervical vertebra?
    Transverse process ("sled")
  11. What joint is formed by the atlas and the skull?
    Atlanto-occipital joint, "yes" joint
  12. The articular of the axis with the atlas is known as the ___ joint
    Atlantoaxial joint, "no" joint
  13. Name the fibrocartilages between the bodes of adjacent vertebrae
    Intervertebral discs
  14. What are the two parts of an intervertebral disc?
    Annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus
  15. What elastic connective tissue structure attaches the 1st thoracic spine to the spine of the axis (C2) in the dog?
    Nuchal ligament, none in cat
  16. What elastic tissue fills the dorsal space (interarcuate space) between arches of the adjacent vertebrae?
    Ligamentum flavum, interarcuate, or yellow ligament
  17. What connects the heads of a pair of opposite ribs, crossing the dorsal part of the intervertebral discs?
    Intercapital ligament
  18. What are the two paired "strap muscles" of the neck?
    Sternohyoideus and Sternothyroideus mm.
  19. Name the muscle extending from the sternum to the head
    Sternocephalicus m.
  20. What forms "envelopes" around the muscles of the neck?
    Deep fascia of the neck
  21. What muscles are above the transverse processes of the vertebrae?
    Epaxial mm.
  22. Name the two major epaxial muscles of the back
    Iliocostalis and Longissimus mm.
  23. What muscles are below the vertebrae's transverse processes?
    Hypaxial mm.
  24. What is the hypaxial muscle in the neck and cranial to the thorax?
    Longus colli m.
  25. What is the main hypaxial/ sublumbar muscle of the abdomen?
    Psoas major m.
  26. Where is the common carotid artery located?
    Beside the trachea in the carotid sheath
  27. What glandular structures are under the omotransversarius muscles just cranial to the shoulder?
    Superficial cervical (prescapular) lymph node
  28. List the two important structures enclosed in the carotid sheath
    Common carotid artery, vagosympathetic trunk
  29. Where is the esophagus located in the middle of the neck?
    On left
  30. What is the gland just caudal to the larynx on the trachea?
    Thyroid gland
  31. What is the part of the hyoid apparatus crossing the midline?
    Basihyoid bone
  32. Name the five divisions of the spinal cord
    Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal
  33. What are the ascending and descending tracks of the spinal cord and what do they carry?
    • Ascending: sensory information
    • Descending: upper motor neurons (UMN), motor information
  34. Where does the spinal cord end in the dog? Cat? Humans?
    Dog: L6 (6-7), Cat: S1-3, Human: L2
  35. Ventral branches of spinal nerves interlace to form ____
  36. What nerve travels along the dorsal border of the omotransversarius muscle?
    Accessory n. (cranial n. 11)
  37. What plexus supplies some of the extrinsic and all of the intrinisic muscles of the thoracic limb?
  38. Plexuses are formed by the ventral branches of spinal nerves in every region except which?
    Thorax (except T1-2)= intercostal nn.
  39. The ventral brances of the thoracic nevers T3-13 do not form a plexus, but pass in the intercostal spaces as ____ neves
    Intercostal nn.
  40. What plexus supplies the abdominal wall, pelvic limb, external genitalia, rump, and perineum?
    Lumbrosacral plexus
  41. What forms the spinal nerve? Into what do spinal nerves divide?
    Roots (dorsal and ventral), branches (dorsal and ventral)
  42. How do spinal nerves leave the vertebral canal?
    Through intervertebral foramen
  43. What spinal nerve branches supply sensation from the skin of the abdominal wall?
    Dorsal: upper flank (including area below transverse processes), ventral: rest
  44. What are the six major functional regions of the spinal cord?
    • -Cranial (C1-5),
    • -Cervial (brachial) enlargement (C6-T1),
    • -Thoracic and cranial lumbar (T2-L3),
    • -Sacral (S2-3),
    • -Caudal (Ca1-5)
  45. What does the sacral region of the spinal cord supply?
    Reflex control of urination, defication, sexual reflexes, and parasympathetic outflow
  46. What is the function of proprioceptive fibers?
    Sense position of body parts to each other and to environment
  47. Over what structures do proprioceptive fibers travel?
    Peripheral nn., spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, and cerebrum
  48. What is a dermatome? Autonomous zone?
    Area of skin innervated by a nerve, only 1 spinal nerve respectively
  49. What are UMN and LMN?
    • LMN: leave CNS area as peripheral nerves
    • UMN: in CNS, affect LMN's
  50. What is the function of MOST UMNs?
    Inhibit spontaneous activity of LMN until an action is desired
  51. LMN's are ______ ________ without the input of UMN's
    Spontaneously active
  52. List the meninges from outer to inner
    Dura matter, arachnoid, and pia mater
  53. List the spaces that are related to the meninges
    • Epidural: between dura mater and periosteum
    • Subdural: potential space between the dura mater and arachnoid
    • Subarachnoid space: between the arachnoid and pia (CSF)
  54. What is the enlargement of the subarachnoid space between the medulla oblongata and cerebellum?
    Cisterna magna (cerebellomedullary cistern)
  55. What fills the gap between the dorsal edge of the foramen magnum and the atlas?
    Dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane
  56. What is the unpaired artery running longitudinally on the vertebral canal floor in the ventral median fissure length of the spinal cord
    Ventral spinal artery
  57. What are the paired, thin- walled, valveless vessels on the vertebral canal floor in the epidural space from the skull to the caudal vertebrae?
    Internal vertebral venous plexus
  58. What are the vessels located on the ventral surface of the tail?
    Median caudal artery and vein
  59. How are the dorsal and ventral edges of the vertebral canal checked in back radiographs?
    Check for alignment, they should be two straight lines without step defects
  60. What should be evaluated in the area of the axis and atlas?
    The dens (odontoid process), it should be present and held in the ventral veterbral canal
  61. How are the intervertebral disc spaces in back radiographs evaluated?
    Triads (3 adjacent spaces) are compared for different sizes
  62. Describe the appearance of the intervertebral foramen (considered "windows" to the spinal cord)
    Look like Snoopy's little bird buddy "Woodstock" or a "horse head" in profile
  63. How are the intervertebral foramen compared in back radiographs?
    For differences due to disc space differences
  64. What is a landmark in a lateral film of the caudal neck?
    "SLEDS" or transverse processes of C6
  65. How does a myelogram appear?
    Subarachnoid space lights up = two white lines (columns) separated by a space (the invisible spinal cord)
  66. What may narrowing of the intervertebral space indicate?
    Protruded disc
  67. Describe the three possible types of spinal column lesion
    • Extradural lesion: outside the dura mater
    • Intradural lesion: between spinal cord and dura mater
    • Intramedullary (spinal cord) lesion: inside cord
  68. What are the myelogram findings for the following lesions:
    Extradural, intradural, and intramedullary (spinal cord) lesions
    • Extradural: thinning or break of columns pushed inward at lesion, expanded cord/ thinned columns in other view
    • Intradural: widening of subarachnoid space, expanded cord/ thinned columns in other view
    • Intramedullary: Expanded cord/ thinned columns in all views
  69. What is the disease of the cervical vertebrae in large breeds causing stenosis of the vertebral canal resulting in ataxia (unsteady gait)?
    Cervical spondylomyelopathy, canine wobbler disease
  70. What is excessive ventral lumbar curvature?
    Lordosis (swayback)
Card Set
Q&A- Back
Back Q&A Pages 112- 115