1. Bowel refers to
    the intestine.
  2. Stool is
    waste eliminated from the colon.
  3. Ostomy is
    opening into the intestine.
  4. Chyme is
    liquefied food and digestive juices.
  5. Rectum is
    the distal portion of the large intestine where feces are stored.
  6. Anus is
    the opening of the rectum at the skin.
  7. Peristalsis is
    wavelike movement through the intestines.
  8. Feces is
    intestinal waste material.
  9. Sphincter is
    circular muscle that closes an orifice.
  10. Defecate is
    expel feces.
  11. Gastrocolic relex (stomach to colon)
    initiates peristalsis, which in turn initiates the urge to defecate.
  12. Valsalva maneuver is
    closure of the glottis and tightening of abdominal muscles after intra-abdominal pressure increases when one holds one's breath.
  13. Atrophy is
    a decrease in size or wasting away of a cell, tissure, organ or part.
  14. Bile is
    orange or yellow digestive fluid produced by the liver.
  15. Occult is
    hidden or old blood is suspected when the stool changes from a normal brown appearance to a dark black color with a sticky appearance.
  16. Hemorrhoid is
    an enlarged vein inside or just outside the rectum.
  17. Melena is
    dark tarry substance -changed from blood moving through the stomach or small intestine, undergoes partial digestion.
  18. Steatorrhea are
    stools with an abnormally high fat content are usually foul smelling and float on water.
  19. Constipation is
    decreased frequency of bowel movement or passage of hard, dry feces.
  20. Any pt restricted to bed rest is at risk for
  21. Flatus (gas) causes
    abdominal distention, accumulation in the intestinal tract when peristalsis is reduced or absent.
  22. Fecal impaction is
    when the rectum and sigmoid colon become filled with hardened fecal material.
  23. Diarrhea is
    frequent loose stool.
  24. Fecal incontinence is
    the lack of volunatry control over the anal sphincter.
  25. Distention is
    revealed by an abdomen that is rounder and tighter in apperance than normal. Assessed by percussion and gently palpate 4 quadrants.
  26. Task of assisting with ambulation is
    assigned to the nursing assistant.
  27. When the average pt has not experienced bowel evacuation within 3 days
    measures should be taken to assist elimination.
  28. Measures to rid the bowel of barium are
    essential after a pt has had a barium x-rays. encourage an increase in fluid intake of 3500 mL/day for the next 24 hrs.
  29. Excoriation is
    abrasion of the skin.
  30. Observe for signs of dehydration when the pt has severe diarrhea:
    decreased skin turgor, dry mucous membranes with thick saliva, and increased thirst.
  31. Self-medication for diarrhea should not continue for more than
    48 hrs without consulting a physician.
  32. Rectal suppositories are
    used to promote bowel movements are glycerin and bisacodyl.
  33. An enema is
    the introduction of fluid into the rectum and colon by means of a tube.
  34. Enemas are given to
    stimulate the peristalsis and the urge to defecate or to wash out the waste products or feces.
  35. Retention enema is
    an oil retention enema given to a pt for constipation. Should be retained at least 20 minutes.
  36. Distention reduction enema are
    given to relieves discomfort from flatus causing distention.
  37. Medicated enema is
    a solution with drugs to reduce bacteria or remove potassium.
  38. Disposable enema
    stimulates peristalsis by acting as irritant.
  39. Enemas until clear
    no more than 3 large volume enemas are given
  40. Vagal response is
    activation of the vagal nerve, may cause a slow pulse and cardiac dysrhythmia and alteration in blood pressure may develop.
  41. If vagal response occurs you should
    immediately stop procedure, place pt in suping position, monitor vital signs and notify physician.
  42. Bowel training program is
    based on the principles for establishing regular bowel elimination: adequate diet, sufficient fluids, adequate exercise, and sufficient rest.
  43. Ostomy is
    a diversion of intenstinal contents from the normal path.
  44. Stoma is
    an opening into the intestine or an external tissue pouch with a valve nipple opening.
  45. Appliances are
    devices to gather and contain output.
  46. Ileostomy is
    an opening surgically created at the ileum to divert intestinal contents.
  47. Effluent is
    fecal matter from an ileostomy is liquid.
  48. Colostomy is
    an opening into the colon.
  49. Periostomal is
    around the stoma.
  50. A pale or dusky stoma indicates
    compromised blood supply and should be reported to the physician.
  51. It is essential that
    appliance should be correct size for the pt's stoma.
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