total loss of the kidney's ability to manufacture urine (kidney failure)
Urinary incontinence is
inability to prevent passing urine.
voiding during the night. bladder muscle tone decreases and its capacity lessens.
not a normal part of aging.
Residual urine is
urine left in the bladder after urination. becomes stagnant and predisposes to infection.
Urinary retention is
urine retained in the bladder after voiding.
an instrument that reads the amt of light the urine absorbs, or by the use of a chemical dipstick.
The specific gravity is
in normal range is 1.010 to 1.030.
pH of normal urine is
slightly acid, ranging from 5.5 to 7.0.
inflammation of the bladder. Caused by irritation highly concentrated urine
putting in a solution - of an irritating substance.
painful urination. burning, malaise, foul-smelling urine, and slight temp elevation.
decreased amount of urine output. urine output falls below 400 mL in 24 hrs.
excessive urination. Urine output greater than 1500 mL in 24 hrs.
glucose in the urine. too much glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia)
protein the urine. occurs at times of stress, infection present, strenuous exercise.
blood in the urine.
pus in the urine. bacterial infection present in kidney or bladder.
ketones in the urine. occurs when pt is in ketoacidosis.
in increased numbers in the presence of bacteria or protein. Calculi (stones)
RBC in the urine greater than 0 to 2
indicate a stone, tumor, glomerular disorder, cystitis or bleeding disorder.
WBC in the urine mean
there is an infectious or inflammatory process in the urinary tract.
Bilirubin in the urine
suggests liver disease or obstruction of the bile duct.
Urine that stands for more than 15 min or more
changes characteristics and urinalysis will not be accurate.
Commode chair is
a chair with a container inserted to catch urine or feces.
Fracture pan is
used when patients are unable to site on a regular sized bedpan.
the insertion of a tube into the bladder.
Crede's Maneuver is
massaging from top of bladder to bottom by starting above the pubic bone and rocking the palm of the hand steadily downward.
a narrowed lumen.
above the pubic bone.
Straight catheter is
used to relieve retention when a pt is temporarily unable to void or to obtain a sterile specimen.
the most common indwelling catheter, remains in the bladder for an extended period.
Coude catheter (robinson catheter) is
curved and has a rounded or bulbous tip that is easier to insert into the male urethra when the prostate is enlarged.
Alcock catheter is
a foley-type catheter with two eyes, 3 lumens. one for urination, one for instillation and one for inflation of the balloon. used for continuous bladder irrigation following prostate or bladder surgery.
The de Pezzer catheter is
used for suprapubic drainage. tip shape like a mushroom.
Malecot catheter is
often used as a nephrostomy tube, placed in the pelvis of the kidney.
Condom catheter consists of
a condom with a tube attached to the distal end that is attached to a drainage bag. used to provide continuous urine drainage for the male
Any break in aseptic technique causing contamination must be
corrected before continuing with the procedure.
When inserting the catheter
gently insert until you see th urine flow and then insert 1 to 2 more inches.
Once the catheter has touched the patients skin
it should not be introduced into the urinary meatus because it is contaminated.
Anytime the catheter becomes contaminated, the procedure is
stopped and begun again with a sterile catheter and kit.
Each pt should void atleast
8 hrs unless and indwelling catheter is in place.
Removal of an indwelling (Foley) catheter requires
a physician's order. Pt kept on I & O recording for 12 to 24 hrs after catheter removal to ensure bladder is draining adequately.
Intermittent self-catheterization is
used for pt's who regularly experience incontinence or urinary retention.
Urge incontinence is
involuntary loss of urine in response to a strong sensation of need to empty the bladder. (urinary urgency)
Stress incontinence is
urethral sphincter failure; often associated with increased intra-abdominal pressure, a occurs with sneezing, laughing, coughing and aerobic exercise.
Total incontinence is
a combination of different types such as stress and urge incontinence.
Overflow incontinence is
poor contractility of the detrusor muscle of the bladder, obstruction of the urethra as in prostate enlargment in the male or genital prolapse in female.
Functional incontinence is
caused by cognitive inability to recognize the urge to urinate, extremem depression or dementia.
Relex incontinence is
caused by disorders of the neurologic system such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury or stroke.
when the ureter exits on the abdominal wall, discharging urine thru the opening