AP Gov

  1. What is a government?
    Institution that makes authoritative decisions for society.
  2. What are the four functions of government?
    Keep order, protection/defense, public services and promote society's standards.
  3. How did government come about? -Theories of Origin.
    Evolutionary (family-clan-tribe-state), Divine Right, Force Theory, and Social Contract Theory.
  4. What are the four characteristics of a State?
    Population, territory, sovereignty, and government.
  5. What are three divisions of authority?
    Unitary-central government, Federal-nation and state, and Confederation-alliance of states.
  6. What are the four divisions of power?
    Autocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy and Anarchy.
  7. What are the two types of Autocracy?
    Monarchy and Dictatorship.
  8. What are the two divisions of Democracy?
    Presidential and Parliamentary-Prime Minister as a legislature.
  9. What are the two types of Democracy?
    Direct and Representative-also known as Republic.
  10. What is the meaning of Democracy?
    A government in which Supreme Power is vested with the people.
  11. What are five valures that Democracy holds?
    Individual liberty or freedom, majority rule with minority rights, worth of individual, equality of/for all persons, and compromise.
  12. What are American values of Democracy?
    Liberty, individualism, equality of oppotunity, and Civic Duty.
  13. What does the Elitist Theory say about who really governs?
  14. What does the Pluralist Theory say about who really governs?
    Many people, groups.
  15. What does the Hyperpluralism say about who really governs?
    Many groups, so nothing gets done.
  16. What does the Bureaucratic Theory say about who really governs?
    Appointed officials.
  17. What are some Philosophical influences of American government?
    Theories of Origin-Social Contract (Locke, Hobbes, Montesquieu, and Rosseau), and the Decleration of Independence.
  18. What are some historical influences of American government?
    English law (Magna Carta, The English Bill of Rights, Petition of Rights, and Habeas Corpus Act), Mayflower Compact, Protestant Reformation, Articles of Confederation, and Shay's Rebellion.
  19. When, where and why was the Constitutional Convention?
    Summer of 1787, Philadelphia, to fix the Articles of Confederation.
  20. What did the Great Compromise do?
    Took both Virginia plan and New Jersey plan and created a bicameral legislature.
  21. What is the structure of the Constitution?
    Preamble, 7 chapters of Articles and 27 Amendments.
  22. What are the principles of government in the Constitution?
    Popular Sovereignty-voting, Federalism-power to tax by both state and nationl, Separation of Powers-enforce, make and interpret laws, Check and Balances-Inpeach, nominate justices, veto, Judicial Review-declare constitutional or not, Limited Government-reserved powers.
  23. What is the definition of Federalism?
    Dual system governing, both national and state government.
  24. Which state didn't attend the Constitutional Convention?
    Rhode Island.
  25. Which three famous Americans didn't attend the Constitutional Convention?
    Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Patrick Henry, John Hancock, and Samuel Adams.
  26. What is the formal amendment process?
    Process for making changes to the actual words of the Constitution.
  27. What does the necessary and proper clause do?
    Give the government the power to do what's "necessary and proper."
  28. What is the writ of habeas corpus?
    An order issued by a higher court to a lower court to send up the record of a case for review.
  29. What is full faith and credit?
    Article IV Section 1. It addresses the duties that states withint the U.S. have to respect the other states.
  30. What is the Supremacy clause?
    Article VI Section 2. It establishes the Constituion, the federal laws and the foreign treaties as the Supreme Law of the land.
  31. What are the four divisions of power?
    Delegated, reserved, concurrent, and denied.
  32. What are delegated powers?
    National powers-expressed, implied, and inherent.
  33. What is a reserved power?
    State-10th Amendment, education
  34. What are concurrent powers?
    Shared powers-tax, setting up courts.
  35. What are some examples of denied powers?
    Violation of rights, establishing a religion.
  36. What are the theories of Federalism?
    Dual Federalism, Cooperative, and Devolution.
  37. What is dual Federalism?
    Limited national power and the states retained power.
  38. What is cooperative Federalism?
    Marble cake
  39. What are the different types of grants?
    Categorical-formula and project, and block.
  40. What kind of grants do states prefer?
    Block grants.
  41. What kind of grants does the Federal government prefer?
  42. What kind of grant does a growing state prefer?
    Formula grants.
  43. What is a formula grant based off of?
  44. What are mandates?
    Rules set as conditions for obtaining federal grants.
  45. What are conditions of aid?
    Federal rules attached to the grants that states receive.
  46. How does Federalism promote democracy?
    Limited Government, diversity of needs met, closeness to the people, and permits experiementation and innovation.
  47. How does Federalism hinder democracy?
    Conflict of interest, lack of simplicity, lack of national standards, and lack of uniformity.
  48. What are some consequences of Federalism?
    Unified political parties, high complexity of decision making, and difficult to carry out some policies.
  49. What were some challenges to Federalism?
    McCulloch v. Maryland-Fed. government always comes above state, Gibbons v. Ogden-by the Commerse Clause, the congress has the power to regulate interstate commerce.
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AP Gov