What Aegean civilization was on the island of Crete?
When did the Minoans begin?
4 Trade products of the Minoans
- 1) Olive oil
- 2) Fine pottery
- 3) Painting- Frescos (painting on wet plaster)
- 4) Relief sculptures
What is a Frescos?
A painting on wet plaster.
What is the keyword of the Aegean civ and Mycenae?
When did the Mycenae civ begin?
Where did the Mycenae civ begin and end.
- 1) First on Crete
- 2) Then on Greek mainland
Who defeated the Dorians and when?
Mycenae 1200 BC
When were the dark ages?
- 1150-750 BC
- Knowledge based mainly on The Iliad & the Odyssey by Homer
Greek values shaped during this time
- a. Dignity
- b. Strength
- c. Valor
- d. Bravery
- e. Generosity
- f. Wisdom
having human form or attributes
4 Greek gods
- 1. Zeus- king of gods and man
- 2. Apollo- god of sun, music, medicine
- 3. Athena- goddess of wisdom
- 4. Poseidon- god of the sea and earthquakes
- 1. every 4 years to honor Zeus (776 BC)
- 2. Location- Mt. Olympus
- 3. Olympiad became the means of dating historical events
Location of city-states?
- 1. Usually at the foot of a hill
- 2. Fortress at the top of the hill
dictator comes to power throuogh violence
- rule by the people
- any male adult citizen could participate in government decisions
Development of city-states
- Lifestyle centered on training warriors
4 ways of training men?
- a) Unhealthy babies were abandoned to die
- b) Taken from home at age 7
- c) Became part of the Spartan army at age 20
- d) Became full citizens at age 30
When boys were taken from home at age 7 what 3 things did they do?
- 1]Rigorous physical training
- 2]Daily beatings to teach endurance of pain
- 3]Taught to steal to prove resourcefulness
Training Spartan women?
- a) Chief goal was to become strong mothers
- b) To raise strong warrior sons (“Return with your shields or on them”)
Government form of Sparta?
Oligarchy (a board of 5 Nobles)
What was the main goal of the board?
to guard against change (maintain status quo)
4 Characteristics of Sparta?
- a) Militarism
- b) Isolation
- c) Oligarchy
- d) Glorification of the State
4 Characteristics of Athens?
- a) Creativity
- b) Trade
- c) Democracy
- d) Individualism
Influence of Solon? (2)
- a] forbade the practice of making debtors into slaves
- b] Formed the Council of 400 (Representation to al sections of Athens)
Influence of Pericles? (2)
- he established the rule of the people
- he set up the Delian League
What is the Delian League?
a Greek alliance to protect against Persian attack
Most populated city in Hellas?
- 150,000 Athenians
- 50,000 Aliens
- 100,000 Slaves
when and when was the Fateful century?
who is the persian king that sought to revenge Athens for her part in the rebellion?
Who won the Battle of Thermopylae?
- Persians won
- Darius I “Master, remember the Athenians.”
Who is Darius' son?
What happened when Xerxes tried to cross the Hellespont?
- 1) On two boat bridges (674 boats across 1 mile)
- 2) Storm destroys bridges
- a) Phoenician, Egyptian engineers beheaded
- b) Water is given 300 lashes
What happens when Xerxes crossed the 2nd time?
- f. Combined Greek armies took a stand at Thermopylae Pass (p63) Herodotus estimated Persians at 3 million.
- g. Persians unsuccessfully attacked the pass 3 times
- h. Greek traitor showed Persians an alternate way through the pass
- I. Greeks fled except for 300 Spartan soldiers
Who sent a “fake traitor” to Xerxes?
Themistocles (Greek leader)
where did Greece look for leadership?
Greek civil war? and dates?
Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)
Peloponnesian War was mainly a civil war between Athens and Sparta. 4 things
- a. Athens had a superior navy
- b. Sparta had a superior army
- c. Early in the war, a plague killed a large portion of the population of Athens.
- d. Sparta replaced the Governments of Greece with oligarchies
Alexander’s empire extended from...
Greece to India
Name two facts about Phillip II
- 1. Philip II united Macedonia and conquered Greece
- 2. Philip II showed great tolerance for the conquered Greeks. He appreciated their culture.
When was Phillip II assassenatied?
Who was king after Phillip II?
Alexander (son) became king at age 20
What was Alexander’s purpose?
- a. To avenge the Persian invasions of Greece
- b. To become king of all Asia
Alexander the Great's men?
- 1) His men had been fighting for 8 years
- 2) His army had marched over 11,000 miles
3 things about Alexander’s death?
- a. He was in depression since his army refused to continue
- b. Died of a fever in 323 BC
- c. He began ruling at age 20 and died at age 32
Where'd the 4 generals go?
- a. Ptolemy- Egypt
- b. Seleucid- Syria, Persia
- c. Antigonid- Macedonia, Greece
- d. Adrian- Eastern Asia
What became the univeral language?
this is a random notecard so I can have 50!