Bio I

  1. describe 4 levels of protein structure
    • 1 amino acid sequence
    • 2 coiling and folding of amino acid sequence
    • 3 globular shaping of amino acid with R- groups
    • 4 added polypeptide units are collected into this Sequence of amino acids and their R- groups
  2. 4 things prokaryotes and eukaryotes possess
    • plasma membrane
    • cytosol
    • chromosomes
    • ribosomes
  3. Prokaryotes have
    • nucleoid
    • non membrane bound organells
    • cytoplasm
  4. Eukaryotic cells have
    • DNA guarded in membranous nuclear envelope
    • membrane bound organelles
    • cytoplasm between nucleus and plasma membrane
  5. the ECM are made up of
    glycoprotein such as collagen, proteoglycans and fibronectin
  6. protein synthesis in the Nuclear envelope or Rough ER
    or in the cytosol (free bound) Ribosomes
  7. organelles are connected by vesicles, a network that regulates protein traffice and performs metabolic functions in the cell
    Endomembrane system
  8. organelles in the Endomembrane system (6)
    • nuclear envelope
    • ER
    • Golgi apparatus
    • lysosomes
    • vacuoles
    • plasma membrane
  9. synthesizes lipids
    metabolizes carbohydrates
    detoxifies poison
    stores calcium
    smooth ER (4)
  10. bound ribosomes called Glycoproteins
    transport vesicles
    membrane factory
    rough ER
  11. membranous sacs called cisternae
    modifies ER products
    manufactures certain macromolecules
    packages materials into transport vesicles
    Golgi apparatus
  12. lysosome is made up
    membraneous sac of hydrolytic enzymes
  13. perform phagocytosis and autophagy by hydrolysing proteins, fats, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids
  14. vacuole types 3
    • food
    • contractile
    • central (plants)
  15. perform cellular respiration, a process that generates ATP
  16. similarites in mitochondria and chloroplast
    • arent included in the endomembrane system
    • have double membrane
    • contain their own DNA
    • have proteins by ribosomes
  17. found in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis
  18. 2 features chloroplasts have
    • thylakoids
    • stroma; fluid
  19. specialized metabolic compartmetns bounded by a single membrane that produce hydrogen peroxide to convert toxins into water
  20. network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
  21. cytoskeleton is composed of 3 types of molecular structures
    • microtubules - thickest
    • microfilaments - thinnest
    • intermediate filaments
  22. cytoskeletal component that control beating of cilia and flagella
  23. cells secrete materials out of the cells plasma by ...
    • cell walls of plants
    • the ECM or extra cellular matrix of animal cells
    • intercellular junctions
  24. the ECM are made up of
    glycoproteins such as collagen, proteoglycans and fibronectin
  25. the ECM binds with the plasma membrane through
  26. the ECM offers the cell (4)
    • support
    • adhesion
    • movement
    • regulation
  27. neighboring cells in tissues, organs, or organ systems often adhere, interact, and communicate through direct physical contact through ...
    intercellular junctions
  28. types of intercellular junctions
    • plasmodesmata - for plants
    • tight junction -
    • desmosomes - anchoring junctions to cytoskeletons increase flexibility
    • gap junctions
Card Set
Bio I
Bio I class