Rad Path

  1. Why is proper positioning of the skull and sinuses critical?
    to ensure bilateral symmetry and to permit an evaluation of the complex anatomy and structural relationships
  2. What projection should be done if the patient can NOT stand/sit? Why is this important?
    cross table lateral to demonstrate an air-fluid level
  3. What are the Meninges and where are they located?
    • Pia mater-innermost layer adhering to the outer surface of the brain
    • Dura mater-tough, outermost layer
    • arachnoid membrane- cob weblike layer in between the two
  4. What is mastoid ecchymosis also known as?
    battle's sign
  5. What is a Diastatic Fracture?
  6. How does a linear skull fracture appear radiographically?
  7. A depressed fracture is also known as what?
    ping pong fracture
  8. What is a hematoma between the skull and the dura that shows up as a bioconvex shape?
    Epidural hematoma
  9. What type of hematoma is creasant shaped?
    Subdural Hematoma
  10. Why is the nasal bone the most common facial bone fracture?
    smallest and more free floating bone
  11. The "waters" view will demonstrate what? (facial bones)
    bony nasal septum
  12. What is a blow out fracture?
    caused by a direct blow to the front of the orbit that causes a rapid increase in intraorbital pressure. Said to have a sagging hammocklike appearance or trap door variety
  13. What is another term for the SMV view?
    Jug handle?
  14. This is the most common area/site for a mandible fracture?
    angle of the mandible
  15. What is a Le Fort fracture?
    separation at the fracture site results in the formation of a large, complex, detached fragment that is unstable and classified as type 1, 2, or 3
  16. What is TIA?
    Transient Ischemic attack (mini stroke)
  17. What is another term for Cerebrovascular accident?
  18. What is involved in a Tripod Fracture of the Zygoma?
    the max. sinus, zygomatic arch, and lateral orbital rim
  19. What is most commonly affeted with a stoke?
    internal carotid arteries
  20. What is the most commonly affected sinus with Sinusitits?
    Maxillary sinus
  21. What is the difference between an Erythrocyte and a leukocyter?
    erthrocyte is a red blood cell and leukocyte is white bood cells
  22. What is Aneamia and Sickle cell aneamia?
    Anemia is a decrease in the amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in the peripheral blood. Sickle cell anemia is when the hemoglobin molecules are abnormal and red cells are crescentic/sickle shaped and tend to rupture.
  23. What is Thalassemia?
    defect in hemoglobin formation, occurs in people who live near the mediterranean Sea, Italian, greek sicilian
  24. What are the common diseases of the White Blood Cells?
    leukemia,lymphoma, infectious mononucleosis
  25. What are some radiologic signs of Leukemia
    transverse radiolucent bands at the metaphyseal ends of the long bones, most common with the knee, ankles,and writsts. some patchy moth-eaten appearances occur
  26. What are the non skeletal radiographic representations for Leukemia adn Lymphoma?
    • lymphoma=mediastinal lymph node enlargement
    • leukemia= splenomagly
  27. What is an example of a platelet disorder?
    Purpura, aka. thrombocytopenia
  28. What are the 4 primary glands?
    pituitary, adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands.
  29. What diseases is/are related to the adrenal glands?
    Cushings syndrome, hypoadrenalism,
  30. What diseasees is/are related to the pituitary gland?
    Hyperpituitarism(gigantism), Hypopituitarism
  31. What diseases is /are related to the thyroid gland?
    hyperthroidism, hypothyroidism
  32. What is also known as Retarded bone age?
  33. What is a test that is commonly used for Thyroid Gland Disease?
    Radioactive iodine scanning
  34. What is the difference between Hyperparathyroidism and Hypoparathroidism?
    • Hyperparathyroidism= results form the excessive production of the thyroid hormone, more common in females
    • Hypoparathyroidism= results form any structural or functional abnormality that leads to an insufficent synthesis of thyroid hormone.
  35. What are the 2 forms of Diabetes mellitus?
    insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent
  36. What is known as the "Master Gland"?
    pituitary gland
  37. What is the difference between hyperpituitarism and Hypopituitarism?
    • hyperpituitarism=excess of growth hormone, results in gigantism and acromegaly, results in thickening of the heel pads and bones of the skull thickened
    • hypopituitarism=decreased function of the pituitary gland causing dwarfisim
  38. What disease would cause Thick Bony Tufts?
  39. Who is more likely to develop Grave's disease?
    is more likely to develop in third and forth decades and more in woman, (form of hyperthyroidism)
  40. What are some radiographic appearances of Diabetes?
    atherosclerosis disease, ischemia, calcifications, masses
  41. What is hemophilia?
    an inherited anomaly of blood coagulation that appears clincally only in males.
  42. What is the difference between Hodgkins and Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma?
    • Hodgkins is most common and originate in the lymph nodes
    • Non-Hodgkins are of extranodal orgin or orginate in other parts of the body and less common
  43. What type of diabetes do children and younger adults get?
    Type 1
  44. How often should a person with gestational diabetes monitor their blood glucose levels?
  45. Fequent infections and blurred vision are examples of what type of diabetes?
    Type 2
  46. T/F Type 1 diabetes is the most common.
    F Type 2
  47. Which hormone is needed to convert sugar and starch into energy for daily life?
  48. What does Leukemia mean in the greek language>
    White blood
  49. T/F There are 4 types of leukemia.
  50. What are some signs and symptoms of Leukemia?
    Headache, weakness or tired, pain in bones, fevers, weightloss, abnormal bruising or bleeding
  51. T/F you can do a chest x-ray to diagnose leukemia/
  52. What is the cause of leukemia?
    unknown, but may be from high level radiation exposure, viruses, genes, chemicals
  53. What are the two divisions of Lymphoma?
    hodgkins and nonhodgkins
  54. What are some signs and symptoms of lymphoma?
    chest pain, nausea, swelling of lymph nodes, weight loss, fatigue, red patches
  55. What are some treatments for lymphoma?
    Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery
  56. T/F non-hodgkins is the most popular type of lymphoma.
  57. What factors determine the treatment and prognoisis of lyphoma?
    Type, stage, growth, age/health of patient
  58. What does a linear fracture look like?
    straight line, sharp radiolucent line
  59. What is a diastatic fracture?
    fracture along the suture
  60. What is the medical term for elevation?
  61. What is the term for grooves?
  62. What is the basic unit of the NS?
  63. T/F hematomas and protrusions can occur anywhere in the brain.
  64. What routine would you do for a nasal bone?
    R and L laterals and a waters
  65. What do the frontal, sphenoid, maxillary, and ethmoid develop/appear?
    • frontal-10
    • sphenoid-2-3
    • maxillary-birth/1
    • ethmoid-6
  66. What is the best view for a depressed fracture?
    tangential view
  67. What immune system produces cells that fight off infection?
  68. What disease process has a hair on end appearance?
  69. When does a ivory vertebrea occur?
    in lymphoma
  70. Where is the pituitary gland found in?
    sella turcica
  71. T/F Mandibular fractures are bilateral
  72. T/F gestational diabetes is tempoary.
  73. T/F you should decrease your tech. for a nasal bone
  74. cushions occurs with what gland?
  75. dwarfism occurs in what gland?
    pituitary gland
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Rad Path