1. How is life organized?
    Atoms, Molecules, Organelles, Cells, Tissues, Organ, Organ System, Organism
  2. What information is life based on?
    Genetics and Heredity
  3. What modifications help an organism be suited to it's way of life?
    Mutation and Natural Selection
  4. All living species are composed of ___ or ___ cells.
    Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic
  5. What are the three domains of living things?
    Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
  6. Most compounds in organisms are made from?
    Organic molecules
  7. What do biomolecules contain?
    Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur,
  8. What are most molecules in organisms derived from?
  9. What are the classes of biomolecules?
    • Monosaccarides (sugar that makes carbs)
    • Fatty Acids (part of many lipids)
    • Nueclotides - Join to form RNA and DNA
  10. Nucleotides are composed of what?
    Nitrogenous base, Ribose or deoxyribose sugar, ring phosphate group
  11. What are all the details of DNA?
    • It is a polymer of 2 polynucloetide strands wrapped in a right hand double helix.
    • Has Sugar (deoxyribose) phosphate backbone
    • Bases paired with Hydrogen Bonding (A-T and G-C)
    • Carries the genes of an organism
  12. What are the details of RNA?
    • A polymer of polynucleotide strands
    • Has a sugar (ribose) phosphate backbone
    • Has the bases A-U and G-C
  13. What are the three types of RNA
    • Messenger mRNA
    • Transfer tRNA
    • Ribosomal rRNA
  14. What is the sum of all biochemical reactions?
  15. What are the four functions of Metabolism?
    • 1. Synthesis of biomolecules
    • 2. Active transport of ions and molecules over cell membrane.
    • 3. Production of movement and force.
    • 4. Removal of metabolic waste and other toxic substances.
  16. Biological reactions occur by?
    Mechanism or Redox Reactions
  17. What are the biological reactions of Mechanism?
    • Nucleophilic Substitution
    • Addition- 2 molecules combine to give 1 (usually double bonded)
    • Elimination- a molecule loses atoms usually in the form of a small molecule like water.
    • Hydrolysis- water splits a covalent bond and inserts itself.
  18. How is a redox reaction usually recognized?
    • Oxidation- Loss of 2 Hydrogen and/or gain of an oxygen
    • Reduction- Gain of 2 Hydrogen and/or loss of an oxygen
  19. What is energy?
    The capacity to do work.
  20. How do cells generate most of their energy?
    Redox reactions
  21. What is the ultimate source of energy?
    The sun
  22. Define Metabolism.
    The sum of all the enzyme- catalyzed reactions in a living organism.
  23. What are the two types of metabolism and describe each.
    • Anabolism (biosynthetic)- pathways in which large complex molecules are synthesized from smaller molecules
    • Catabolic pathways- large complex molecules are degraded into simpler products. (a portion of the energy produced derive anabolic reactions)
  24. Processes can be classified in the what categories?
    • 1. Synthesis of biomolecules use energy from ATP
    • 2. Transport across membrane through membrane bound protein.
    • 3. Cell movement
    • 4. Waste removal
  25. Describe "Central Dogma" and its information Flow
    The chemical information in gene (DNA) directs the assembly of amino acids into polypeptides (proteins)

    Flow DNA (transcription) --> RNA (translation) --> Protein
  26. Molecular machines convert energy how into direct motion by?
    using the energy driven changes in the three- dimensional shape of proteins
  27. What are the three shapes of bacteria
    • Bacilli (Rod)
    • Spirilli (coiled)
    • Cocci (spheroidal)
  28. How is a bacteria classified as gram-positive?
    By a peptidoglycan rigid cell wall that maintains shape
  29. How is a bacteria classified as gram-negative?
    By a peptidoglycan rigid cell wall and an outer lipid bilayer
  30. In bacteria what is the nucleoid?
    The circular DNA molecule or chromosome
  31. What are plasmids?
    The small circular DNA molecules separated from the chromosome
  32. What are Pili?
    Fine hair-like structures that allow for attachment to food sources and host tissues.
  33. What are the characteristics of the nucleus?
    • Contains the cells hereditary information, DNA, and exerts influence on cellular activities.
    • Directs synthesis of protein cell components.
    • Surrounded by nuclear envelope.
  34. What are the characteristics of the mitochondrion?
    • Responsible for aerobic respiration.
    • contains DNA molecules and components for protein synthesis
  35. What are the characteristics of the plasma membrane?
    • It separates the eukaryotic cell from its external environment.
    • Its composed of lipids and proteins
    • Has a role in intercellular communication
  36. What are the characteristics of the Smooth ER?
    • Lipid Synthesis
    • Biotransformation- water-insoluble organic molecules are prepared for excretion
  37. What are the characteristics of Rough ER?
    Production of membrane protein and proteins for cell export
  38. What are the characteristics of Golgi Apparatus?
    Packaging and distribution of cell products to both internal and external call compartments. (post office)
  39. What are the characteristics of nucleolus?
    synthesis of ribosomal RNA
  40. What are the characteristics and functions of Lysosomes?
    • Single membrane sac-like organelles that contain aggregates of digestive enzymes.
    • Functions
    • Digestion of food
    • Digestion of worn out or unneeded cell components.
    • Breakdown of extracellular material
  41. What are the characteristics of a peroxysome?
    Small spherical organelles that contain oxidative enzymes. They form and breakdown peroxides.
  42. How are peroxysomes involves with plants?
    In plants leaves, it is involved in photorespiration
  43. How are peroxysomes involved with seeds?
    It is glyoxysome which converts fats to carbohydrates.
  44. What are the characteristics of the cytoskeleton?
    It is a network of proteinaceous fibers and filaments.
  45. What is cytoskeletons 3 functions?
    • Maintain cell shape
    • Facilitation of coherent cellular movement
    • Provision of a supporting network that guides the movement of organelles
  46. What are the characteristics of chloroplasts?
    Convert light energy to chemical energy.
  47. What are the characteristics of the thylakoid membrane?
    it is responsible for the metabolic function of the chloroplast. its interior is the lumen. tightly stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane are called grana.
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