Physiology Test 3

  1. What color will appear if the light from every spectrum is reflected?
  2. What color will appear if the light from every spectrum is absorbed?
  3. How many muscles do we have in the eye?
  4. What is the yellow tissue used for safety and cushion around the eye?
    adipose tissue
  5. What secretes tears in the eye?
    lacrimal glands
  6. What drains tears into the nasal cavity?
    Nasolacrimal duct
  7. What is the white part of the eye?
  8. What is continuous of the Sclera and transparent for light entry?
  9. What is muscular and controls pupal diameter in the eye?
  10. What is soft, focuses light, and can change shape?
  11. What controls the change in shape of the lens?
    ciliary body and zonular fibers
  12. Acts as spokes on a wheel to the lens.
    zonular fibers
  13. What deteremines eye color?
    • -genetics
    • -melanin amount and distribution
  14. What is it called when two eyes have different colors or there are different colors in the same eye?
  15. What fills the space in the front of the eye?
    Aqueous humor (gets replaced)
  16. What is the aqueous humor made of?
    tissue from the ciliary body
  17. What fills the back of the eye?
    vitreous humor (is not replaced)
  18. Where does the aqueous humor drain?
    the Canal of Schlemn
  19. What is directly inside the Sclera?
  20. What does the Choroid do?
    prevents light from scattering
  21. What is directly inside the Choroid?
  22. What does the retina do?
    photo receptors located in the retina
  23. What is the small dent in the retina where your eye is most focused?
  24. This place is where a bundle of axons exit the eye.
    Optic nerve
  25. The exact place where the nerve axons leave.
    Optic Disk (blind spot)
  26. Eyelash mites:
    • 65 species
    • specific to mammals
    • 2 infect humans
    • more than 90% of adults posses
    • increase with age
  27. How many receptors are in each taste bud?
    around 100
  28. Clusters of taste buds are called:
    fungiform papillae
  29. Gustation Pathways:
    Tongue/oral cavity -> medulla -> thalamus -> gustatory cortex
  30. Olfactory receptor cells are found in the:
    olfactory epithelium
  31. What is the accessory olfactory structure in many mammals?
    Vomeronasal Organ (VNO)
  32. Process through which light reflecteed from objects in our environment is translated into a mental image?
  33. Which nerve is the oculomotor nerve?
    Cranial nerve III
  34. Pupiliary constriction?
    parasympathetic stimulation of circular muscle
  35. Pupiliary dialation?
    sympathetic stimulation of radial muscle
  36. Vision pathway?
    light hits photoreceptors -> rods & cons -> bipolar cells -> ganglion cells -> optic nerve
  37. Which cells mediat neurons and regulate vision?
    • Amacrine cells
    • horizontal cells
  38. Rods?
    • monochromatic vision (black and white)
    • low light conditions
  39. Cones?
    • color vision
    • high light levels
  40. Cones or rods in fovea?
    • highest # of cones
    • # of cones decline rapidly away from fovea
    • # of rods greatest near fovea then declines gradually away from fovea
  41. convergence?
    more than one photoreceptor synapse with a single bipolar cell
  42. Phototransduction:
    • 1. Light absorbed by photopigment in outer segment of photoreceptor
    • 2. Photopigment changes shape; Na+ channels close
    • 3. Potassium leakage out of cell; hyperpolaraization of outer segment
    • 4. Hyperpolarizing membrane potential causes closing of Ca++ channels in inner
    • segment
    • 5. Less Ca++ enters cells, neurotransmitter release declines (glutamate)
    • 6. Bipolar cell receives less neurotransmitter, generates smaller graded
    • potentials
  43. little convergence?
    greater visual acuity
  44. more convergence?
    greater light sensitivity
  45. waves caused by air molecules put in motion?
  46. Outer part of the ear that we can see?
  47. 3 bones in the middle ear?
    • Malleus
    • Incus
    • Stapos
  48. Tube that runs from the middle ear to the throat?
    Eustachian Tube
  49. Organ located in the center of the cochlea?
    Organ of Corti
  50. What picks up the vibrations in the organ of corti to transduce sound?
    hair cells and tectorial membrane
  51. Auditory pathways:
    Nerve VIII -> medulla -> pons -> midbrain & thalamus -> auditory cortex
  52. What contains equlibrium ear parts?
    Vestibular Apparatus
  53. Equlibrium pathways:
    Cranial Nerve VIII -> cerebellum
  54. Sympathetic NS:
    fight or flight
  55. Emergency Theory:
    • Releas of epinephrine or norepinephrin from the sympathetic NS/adrenal sypathetic pathway to a stressor
    • heart rate, 02 intake, blood-glucose affected
  56. Parasympathetic NS:
    • rest or digest
    • maintenance of homeostasis
  57. Autonomic control center found in:
    • hypothalamus
    • pons
    • medulla
  58. Ganglion:
    collection of cell bodies
  59. Autonomic pathways:
    CNS -> preganglionic neuron -> autonomic ganglion -> postganlionic neuron (usually 8) -> target tissue
  60. Over reaction to autonomic NS (vagus nerve) to certain triggers causes?
    Vasovagal syncope (fainting)
  61. What is a modified sympathetic ganglion?
    Adrenal Medulla
  62. Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic
    • Sympathetic preganlionic neurons are thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves
    • Parasympathetic are cranial and sacral spinal nerves; vagus nerve (x) important!
    • Sympathetic chain
    • Neurotransmitters
    • -Sympathetic pathways use norepinephrin
    • -Parasympathetic pathways use acetylcholine
  63. What are on the end of terminals that attach to muscle fibers?
    • Motor end plates
    • where synapse occurs
  64. Which muscles have more than one nucleus?
    skeletal muscles
  65. which muscles have intercalated disks? and are branching?
  66. how much of our body weight is muscle?
  67. muscle cell membrane?
  68. muscle cell cytoplasm?
  69. modified endoplasmic reticulum?
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  70. bundle of muscle fibers
    muscle fascicle
  71. wraps the whole muscle?
  72. wraps the fasicle?
  73. wraps the muscle fiber?
  74. bundle of proteins?
  75. single protein?
  76. Myosin?
    thick part- spring - dark in picture
  77. Actin?
    balls line up - allow contraction - lighter part in picture
  78. Tropomyosin?
    rope around actin (regulatory)
  79. Troponin?
    brown smaller balls around actin (regulatory)
  80. Nepulin?
    anchor actin - line throught the middle of balls (accessory)
  81. Titin?
    anchor myosin - squiggle part (accessory)
  82. Neuromuscular Junction:
    • 1. ACh release from axon
    • 2. Binding to sarcolemina receptors
    • 3. Depolarization of saracolemina
  83. Muscular fiber contraction:
    • 1. Release ACh at junction
    • 2. Entry of Na+ through ACh receptor-channel initiates a muscle action potential
    • 3. Action potential in t-tubule alters conformation of DHP receptor
    • 4. DHP receptor opens Ca++ release channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum and Ca ++ enters cytoplasm
    • 5. Ca++ binds to troponin, allowing actin-myosin binding
    • 6. Myosin heads executive power stroke
    • 7. Actin filiment slides toward center of sarcomere
  84. Muscle contraction part 2:
    • 1. Ca++ in cytosil
    • 2. Ca++ binds to troponin
    • 3. Troponin-tropomyson pull away from binding site
    • 4. power stroke
    • 5. actin filament moves
  85. Motor unit:
    one motor neruon and every muscle cell it intervates
  86. Asynchronous recruitment:
    helps muscle from getting fatiqued
  87. 3 roles of ATP in muscle contraction:
    • 1. Unbinding of myosin from actin and energizing myosin for power stroke
    • 2. Re-uptake of Ca++ into sarcoplasmic reticulum via Ca++ pumps
    • 3. Na/K pumps activity to help maintain proper concentration gradients (just like for any other cell)
Card Set
Physiology Test 3
the eye, nose, taste, hearing, skeletal muscle