What color will appear if the light from every spectrum is reflected?
What color will appear if the light from every spectrum is absorbed?
How many muscles do we have in the eye?
What is the yellow tissue used for safety and cushion around the eye?
What secretes tears in the eye?
What drains tears into the nasal cavity?
What is the white part of the eye?
What is continuous of the Sclera and transparent for light entry?
What is muscular and controls pupal diameter in the eye?
What is soft, focuses light, and can change shape?
What controls the change in shape of the lens?
ciliary body and zonular fibers
Acts as spokes on a wheel to the lens.
What deteremines eye color?
- -melanin amount and distribution
What is it called when two eyes have different colors or there are different colors in the same eye?
What fills the space in the front of the eye?
Aqueous humor (gets replaced)
What is the aqueous humor made of?
tissue from the ciliary body
What fills the back of the eye?
vitreous humor (is not replaced)
Where does the aqueous humor drain?
the Canal of Schlemn
What is directly inside the Sclera?
What does the Choroid do?
prevents light from scattering
What is directly inside the Choroid?
What does the retina do?
photo receptors located in the retina
What is the small dent in the retina where your eye is most focused?
This place is where a bundle of axons exit the eye.
The exact place where the nerve axons leave.
Optic Disk (blind spot)
- 65 species
- specific to mammals
- 2 infect humans
- more than 90% of adults posses
- increase with age
How many receptors are in each taste bud?
Clusters of taste buds are called:
Tongue/oral cavity -> medulla -> thalamus -> gustatory cortex
Olfactory receptor cells are found in the:
What is the accessory olfactory structure in many mammals?
Vomeronasal Organ (VNO)
Process through which light reflecteed from objects in our environment is translated into a mental image?
Which nerve is the oculomotor nerve?
Cranial nerve III
parasympathetic stimulation of circular muscle
sympathetic stimulation of radial muscle
light hits photoreceptors -> rods & cons -> bipolar cells -> ganglion cells -> optic nerve
Which cells mediat neurons and regulate vision?
- Amacrine cells
- horizontal cells
- monochromatic vision (black and white)
- low light conditions
- color vision
- high light levels
Cones or rods in fovea?
- highest # of cones
- # of cones decline rapidly away from fovea
- # of rods greatest near fovea then declines gradually away from fovea
more than one photoreceptor synapse with a single bipolar cell
- 1. Light absorbed by photopigment in outer segment of photoreceptor
- 2. Photopigment changes shape; Na+ channels close
- 3. Potassium leakage out of cell; hyperpolaraization of outer segment
- 4. Hyperpolarizing membrane potential causes closing of Ca++ channels in inner
- 5. Less Ca++ enters cells, neurotransmitter release declines (glutamate)
- 6. Bipolar cell receives less neurotransmitter, generates smaller graded
greater visual acuity
greater light sensitivity
waves caused by air molecules put in motion?
Outer part of the ear that we can see?
3 bones in the middle ear?
Tube that runs from the middle ear to the throat?
Organ located in the center of the cochlea?
Organ of Corti
What picks up the vibrations in the organ of corti to transduce sound?
hair cells and tectorial membrane
Nerve VIII -> medulla -> pons -> midbrain & thalamus -> auditory cortex
What contains equlibrium ear parts?
Cranial Nerve VIII -> cerebellum
fight or flight
- Releas of epinephrine or norepinephrin from the sympathetic NS/adrenal sypathetic pathway to a stressor
- heart rate, 02 intake, blood-glucose affected
- rest or digest
- maintenance of homeostasis
Autonomic control center found in:
collection of cell bodies
CNS -> preganglionic neuron -> autonomic ganglion -> postganlionic neuron (usually 8) -> target tissue
Over reaction to autonomic NS (vagus nerve) to certain triggers causes?
Vasovagal syncope (fainting)
What is a modified sympathetic ganglion?
Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic
- Sympathetic preganlionic neurons are thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves
- Parasympathetic are cranial and sacral spinal nerves; vagus nerve (x) important!
- Sympathetic chain
- -Sympathetic pathways use norepinephrin
- -Parasympathetic pathways use acetylcholine
What are on the end of terminals that attach to muscle fibers?
- Motor end plates
- where synapse occurs
Which muscles have more than one nucleus?
which muscles have intercalated disks? and are branching?
how much of our body weight is muscle?
muscle cell membrane?
muscle cell cytoplasm?
modified endoplasmic reticulum?
bundle of muscle fibers
wraps the whole muscle?
wraps the fasicle?
wraps the muscle fiber?
bundle of proteins?
thick part- spring - dark in picture
balls line up - allow contraction - lighter part in picture
rope around actin (regulatory)
brown smaller balls around actin (regulatory)
anchor actin - line throught the middle of balls (accessory)
anchor myosin - squiggle part (accessory)
- 1. ACh release from axon
- 2. Binding to sarcolemina receptors
- 3. Depolarization of saracolemina
Muscular fiber contraction:
- 1. Release ACh at junction
- 2. Entry of Na+ through ACh receptor-channel initiates a muscle action potential
- 3. Action potential in t-tubule alters conformation of DHP receptor
- 4. DHP receptor opens Ca++ release channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum and Ca ++ enters cytoplasm
- 5. Ca++ binds to troponin, allowing actin-myosin binding
- 6. Myosin heads executive power stroke
- 7. Actin filiment slides toward center of sarcomere
Muscle contraction part 2:
- 1. Ca++ in cytosil
- 2. Ca++ binds to troponin
- 3. Troponin-tropomyson pull away from binding site
- 4. power stroke
- 5. actin filament moves
one motor neruon and every muscle cell it intervates
helps muscle from getting fatiqued
3 roles of ATP in muscle contraction:
- 1. Unbinding of myosin from actin and energizing myosin for power stroke
- 2. Re-uptake of Ca++ into sarcoplasmic reticulum via Ca++ pumps
- 3. Na/K pumps activity to help maintain proper concentration gradients (just like for any other cell)