Middle Ages Test 2

  1. Alfred the Great
    • -anglo saxon king
    • -drove the vikings out of ''britania''
    • -named it england (land of angles)
  2. william the conqueror
    • -from n. france (normandy)
    • -laid claim to english throne and won at battle of hastings
    • -took land from opponents and gave it to supporters
    • -centralized power
  3. henry II
    • -english king, french vassel
    • -powerful in both
    • -sent judges throughout england to punish local crimes, collect taxes, and settle disputes
    • -created juries=12 neighbors who answered judges questions on case
    • -developed common law
    • -uniform law based on precedent
  4. richard the lionheart
    • -fought in crusades
    • -national hero
  5. king john
    • -failed military leader
    • -cruel, tried to squeeze $ for war, nobles revolted
    • -nobles demanded he sign the magna carta (''great character'') before they gave him anymore $
    • magna carta
    • -first document to limit power of a king
    • -guaranteed rights of nobility
  6. edward I
    • -needed $ for war & nobles refused
    • -he gave taxing powers to knights & burgesses (wealthy commoners), they were grateful for power & passed his taxes
    • -later bishop & nobles joined knights & burgesses to form parliament
  7. parliament
    • -legislative body with 2 houses
    • -house of lords
    • -bishops + nobles
    • -house of commons
    • -knights + burgesses
    • -power struggle
  8. louis the sluggard
    • -last of carolingians to die off
    • -they were dying off already but this was the last blow
  9. hugh capet family
    • -hugh capet controls a busy crossroad-paris
    • -he & his descendants spread power & control from paris for next 300 years until they controlled all of france
  10. phillip II
    • -smart leader
    • -expands power to all of france
    • -tripled his land by taking land from john softsword
    • -increased power at expense of his nobles
  11. louis IX
    • -eventually made a saint
    • -ideal ruler
    • -increased royal power over nobility by using royal courts to tax, enforce law, etc. (used to be nobles job)=appeals court
  12. philip IV
    • -battled church over taxation
    • -included commoners in legislative policy to dilute power of nobility & church (who had previously legislated)--increased royal power
    • -created Estates General (parliament)
    • 1st church
    • 2nd nobility
    • 3rd commoners
  13. england
    -kings created parliament to limit power of nobles but parliament will soon gain power against king
  14. the great schism
    • -philip believed french bishops should have to pay taxes to the king but pope said no
    • -philip kidnapped pope boniface VIII & held him prisoner who eventually escaped and died a month later

    -after boniface died phillip convinced the college of cardinals to appoint a french pope, who moved the papacy to agivnon, france & stayed there for 69 years

    • -eventually a french pope visited rome & died there
    • -college of cardinals appointed an italian pope who moved the papacy back to rome
    • -french are upset & appoint own pope who stays in avignon
    • -city of pisa elects their own pope
    • -great schism-split in papacy
    • -eventually rid of all 3 & appoint one pope who moves to rome
  15. john wycliffe
    • -challenged the church & said jesus was head of church & the bible was the final authority, not the pope
    • -called out the church for breaking vows & living with to much wealth
    • -burned at the stake
  16. jan huss
    -same as john wycliffe
  17. bubonic/black plague
    • -disease that started in china & made its way to euro. by merchant ships
    • -when you contracted it you'd have red blotches & a bruised type ring
    • -your lymph system would shut down & you couldnt fight disease
    • -spread because of unsanitary living conditions
    • -1/3, 20-25 million, people died
    • -trade shut down
    • -blamed jews
    • -they used the jewish law, leviticus, to stop the disease from spreading more, ironic
    • -church lost power due to inability to stop plague
  18. hundred years war
    • -england vs. france
    • -1337-1453
    • -fought over who would be king of france
    • -interbreeding btwn. royalty in england & france messed up line of succession in who would be king of france

    • -french win & retain control of france
    • -england fights civil war following
    • -ppl start identifying themselves with country
    • -power of kings grew, they become ppl worth fighting and dieing for
    • -power of church diminished
    • -lost some power to kings & ppl lost faith because of plague, scandals, crusade, & schism
  19. longbow & associated battles
    • -crecy, poitiers, agincourt saw first use of the longbow
    • -changed warfare forever
    • -before LB, whichever army had more knights on horseback was gonna win the battle
    • -it was cheap & could pierce armor at more than 100 yards
    • -allowed common person to win in a war against a rich knight
  20. joan of arc
    • -teenage french girl
    • -at age 13 had visions of god telling her to lead french army
    • -she lead the armies and won at the battle of orleans
    • -allows charles VII to become king of france
    • -captured by english & burned at the stake as a heretic
    • -charles VII didnt try to help her
  21. explain how the capet family came to power
    • -hugh capet controlled a busy crossroad-paris
    • -he & his descendants spread power & control from paris for next 300 years until they controlled all of france
  22. analyze how philip IVs problems with the pope led to a more democratic french government
    • -he battled the church over taxation
    • -he included commoners in his legislative policy to dilute power of nobility & church and increase royal power
  23. analyze how the french and english monarchies attempted to concentrate power in the hands of the king at the expense of the nobles or the church
    • England
    • -kings created parliament to limit power of nobles, but parliament soon gained power against king

    • France
    • -estates general gives king power over church & nobles
    • -estates general eventually leads to overthrow of king
  24. analyze how the military inadequacies/tendencies of king john & edward I led to a more democratic and inclusive english government
    • -they both needed money for war and the nobles refused
    • -lessened the power of the king
    • -edward let people have taxing power
  25. appeals court
    -could overturn the decisions of local courts
Card Set
Middle Ages Test 2
world history middle ages test 2