1. In the brachial artery, the average blood pressure is?
  2. The blood flow in arteries
    pulsate (not the same all the time)
  3. In blood pressure heart beat is?
    systolic reading
  4. In blood pressure, at rest is?
  5. true/false

    Muscular activity is required for blood in veins to circulate?
  6. Hemodynamics is?
    the movement of blood through blood vessels
  7. Valves are used
    to reduce backflow
  8. A good muscular pump
    is adequate for good blood flow
  9. An intravascular clot
    is formed in veins and is due to slow moving blood in the veins
  10. Embolus
    is a moving blood clot that is carried to first capillary bed (lung)
  11. Pulmonary embolism is
    a blood clot in the lungs
  12. Stretched out veins due to a large amount of blood accumulation; associated with a valve not working properly and blood not circulating properly; veins that are seen on the surface
    varicose veins
  13. In the united states the leading cause of death is
    cardiovascular disease
  14. what is the problem with high blood pressure in the arteries?
    Arteries can bust and clot forming
  15. what is considered to be high high blood pressure?
    140 mmHg or more
  16. How low is too low with regards to bp?
    the lower the better, as long as the blood is flowing
  17. Another name for low bp is?
  18. What is Atherosclerosis?
    Deposits called plaques that accumulate in the walls of arteries that lead to heart disease
  19. what is a major component of plaque?
    Cholesterol (lipid/fat)
  20. Lumen is found in the artery what is it?
    a small opening in the artery due to the thickening of arteriowalls and plaque deposits
  21. An aneurysm is
    a weakening of a artery wall
  22. Hemorrhagic stroke is
    hemorrhage on the brain tissue
  23. Ischemic stroke is
    when a clot stops blood supply to an area of the brain
  24. Atherosclerosis is
    hypertension; artery rupture; blood clots; plaque movement
  25. What is the concentration of cholesterol in the blood plasma?
    140 Mg/100mLs
  26. At what point is cholesterol considered high?
    180mg/100ml <
  27. Statins are
    medicine that is prescribed to reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver
  28. LDL refers to
    Low density lipoproteins that go from the liver to the body cells
  29. HDL refers to
    High density lipoproteins and they pick up the the LDL molecules that are left over and take them back to the liver
  30. good cholesterol is considered to be
  31. Bad cholesterol is
    found in LDL
  32. Why is LDL considered to be a bad cholesterol?
    Because its a atherogenic lipoprotein and it aids in Atheroschlerosis
  33. What helps promote HDL synthesis?
    exercise and a healthier diet
  34. Lipids that are made in the liver are examples of why type of process?
    Endogenous Lipoproteins
  35. Lipids that come from the outside are considered
    exogenous lipoproteins
  36. Chylomicron
    comes from the gut
  37. The process of moving fluid out of the the capillaries. (Hydrostatic pressure = due to blood pressure more fluid comes out than goes back in)
  38. The process of moving fluid back into the capillaries "osmotic pressure"
  39. What is the effective filtration pressure?
    1 mmHg per 1 min
  40. What is edema?
    Accumulation of interstitial fluid
  41. True or false

    Want plasma proteins to stay in blood instead of outside
  42. How many liters of blood is plasma
    2.5-3 liters
  43. The interstitial fluid vol. depends on what?
    • 1. rates of filtration
    • 2. reabsorbtion
    • 3. lymph flow
    • 4. compliance of the interstitial compartment
  44. What is the lymphatic system?
    a group of vessels that carry excess interstitial fluid to the circulation
  45. What three things lead to edema?
    • 1. decrease plama proteins
    • 2. increase permability of the capillary to protein
    • 3. blockage of the lymphatic flow/drainage
  46. How much blood of the total blood vol is found in the capillaries?
    250 ml
  47. A ring found around capillary beds that opens/closes to allow blood flow?
    Pre-capillary sphincter
  48. What is the purpose of breathing?
    to get air into the lungs for exchange of CO2 for O2
  49. What are alveoli?
    air sacks found in the lungs that have a large surface area
  50. Process of moving air in and out of lungs and exchanging of respiratory gases over respiratory transport and then delivery gases to cells and in turn the production of the gases by cells
  51. Inspired air is comprised of
    about 80% Nitrogen and 20% O2
  52. Alveolar air is comprised up of
    • 13-14% O2
    • More than 20% CO2
    • water vapor
  53. Space in the respiratory tract that is not functional for exchange?
    Anatomical dead space
  54. What percentage of exhaled air is alveolar air?
  55. what percentage of exhaled air is ADSA (anatomical dead space air)?
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