1. in a flower, how can you tell a monocot from a dicot?
    a monocot has flower parts in 3 or groups of 3, 6, 9.

    a dicot has flower parts in 4 or 5.
  2. What are the 4 parts of a flower?
    • pistal
    • stamen
    • petal
    • sepal
  3. what is the pistal?
    the feamle part of a flower.
  4. what is the stamen?
    the male part of the flower.
  5. what are the 3 parts of the pistal?
    • stigma
    • style
    • ovary
  6. what is the stigma?
    part of the pistal, the stigma receives the pollen during fertilization.
  7. what is the style?
    part of the pistal, its the tubular structure that the stigma sits atop.
  8. what is the ovary?
    in the pistal, it is the reproductive organ, and contains the ovule.
  9. inside-out, what are the layers of a flower?
    • petal
    • stamen
    • petal
    • sepal
  10. a plant that is monoecious, is what?
    a perfect flower, it contains both men and femaile reproductive parts.
  11. a plant that is dioecious, is what?
    an imperfect flower, it contains either the male or female part of reproduction. Finding the opposite on a different flower.
  12. what is a regular flower?
    a flower with MORE than 1 dividing plane
  13. what is a irregular flower?
    a flower that has 1 dividing plane.
  14. what is infloresence?
    a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of the main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.
  15. ouside-in, name the layers of fruit?
    • endocarp
    • mesocarp
    • ectocarp
  16. what are the 7 types of infloresence?
    • catkin
    • compose
    • panicile
    • umbel
    • raceme
    • spike
    • whorls
  17. what is double fertilization and its process?
    • the process by which a plant produces a seed.
    • a sperm fertilizes the egg and a sperm combines with 2 polar nuculei of the large central cell of the embryo sac.
  18. what is a mature ovule?
    a seed.
  19. what is the process a plant goes through to produce a seed?
    • fertilize egg
    • egg forms a zygote
    • develops into a embryo
    • the endosperm forms
    • the seed coat forms
  20. what is a zygote?
    the inital cell formed when a new organism is produced by means of sexual reproduction.
  21. what are the 3 ovary positions on a flower?
    • inferior
    • superior
    • intermediate
  22. what is a root?
    a root is a organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface.
  23. what is the first part of the root?
    the radicle
  24. what are the 3 major functions of the root?
    • absorption
    • anchoring
    • storage
  25. what is mycorrhizas?
    a symbosis relationship between fungus and roots.
  26. what are the 7 parts of a root?
    • root hair
    • epidermus
    • epiblem
    • cortex
    • endodermus
    • pericycle
    • xylem vessel
  27. what is a root hair?
    forms on the epidermus of the root, it absorbs most of the water and nutrients.
  28. what is the epidermus of a root?
    a single cell layer on the outside of the root, and protects the root from water loss and regulates gas exchange.
  29. what is the epiderlem of a root?
    it replaces the epidermus in roots and stems of submerged water plants.
  30. what is the cortex of a root?
    the outermost layer of the root, just after the epidermus.
  31. name the 7 layers of a root, inside-out?
    • pith
    • protoxylem
    • xylem
    • phloem
    • sclerenchyma
    • cortex
    • epidermus
  32. what is responsible for root growth?
    the aprical meristem
  33. what is responsible for secondary growth of the root?
    the lateral maristem
  34. what is vascular cambium?
    vascular cambium is a lateral meristem, it is the source of both secondary xylem and secondary phloem.
  35. what is cork cambium?
    is a tissue found in the periderm. It is a lateral meristem and is responsible ofr secondary growth that replaces the epidermus in roots and stems.
  36. where is the cork cambium located, and function?
    one of the layers of bark, it is located between the cork and primary phloem.

    the purpose of the cork cambium is to produce cork, a protective material.
  37. where does the branch root form?
    the pericycle
  38. what is the outermost layer of the vascular cylinder?
    the endodermus
  39. what controls the flow of water between the cortex and xylem?
    the endodermus
  40. what distinguishes the endodermus in a root?
    the carparian strip
  41. besides flower parts in groups of 3, what are 3 other charateristics of a monocot?
    parallel leaf veins, buliform cells, and the vascular bundles are scattered.
  42. besides flower parts in 4 or 5, what are other charateristics of a dicot?
    the vascular bundles are in rings, and the leafs have netted veins.
  43. what produces the leaf?
    the shoot meristem
  44. in a leaf, what do chloroplasts do?
    captures light energy, and converts to ATP
  45. What are the 3 parts of a leaf?
    • petiole
    • lamina
    • stipules
  46. in a leaf, what is the petiole?
    the leaf stalk, or main vein
  47. in a leaf, what is the lamina?
    the leaf blade
  48. in a leaf, what are stipules?
    glands, scales, hairs, spines, or laminars which are leaf-like structures
  49. name the leaf layers from top-to bottom?
    • cuticle
    • upper epidermus
    • palisade mesophyll
    • spongy mesophyll
    • lower epidermus, which contains guard cells and stoma
    • cuticle
  50. guard cells are what type of cells?
    perynchyma cells
  51. what are parenchyma cells?
    the working cell, the cells that make up meristems, and have thinist cell walls
  52. what cell is the working cell, makes up meristems, and have thinist cell walls?
    parenchyma cells
  53. what are collenchyma cells?
    unevenly thickened walls, still living at maturity, and provides flexible support.
  54. what cell has unevenly thickened walls, still living at maturity, and provides flexible support?
    collenchyma cells
  55. what are sclerenchyma cells?
    thickest cell walls, dead at maturity, and provides strength
  56. what cell has the thickest cell walls,is dead at maturity, and provides strength?
    sclerenchyma cells
  57. in a leaf, what is the epidermus?
    right below the cuticle, it is the outermost layer of cells, usually lacks chloroplasts and is transparent in appearence
  58. in a leaf, epidermus tissue is made of?
    • epidermal cells
    • guard cells
    • subsidiary cells
    • sometimes trichomes
  59. what is the stomata?
    usually on the lower epidermus, surrounded by guard cells on each side, the stomata regulates water vapor and gas exchange
  60. what type of cells are the palisades and spongy layer of mesophyll made of?
    collenchyma cells
  61. what is the role of the mesophyll layers in a leaf?
  62. what type of tissue is mesophyll?
    ground tissue
  63. what is the palisades layer of mesophyll?
    tightly packed, elongated cells, 1 or 2 cells deep, and have more chloroplats than the spongy layer
  64. what is the spongy layer of mesophyll?
    more rounded cells than the palisades layer, and are not tightly packed together
  65. in aquatic and marsh plants, what replaces the mesophyll layers in a leaf?
    a aerenchyma layer, thin walls seperated by large gas filled spaces, and the stomata is located on the upper epidermus.
  66. what make leaves green?
    chlorophyll fround in chlorenchyma cells
  67. where are the veins located ona leaf?
    in the vascular tissue, mesophyll layers
  68. what are leaf veins made of ?
    xylem, which brings water from the roots to leaf.

    phloem, which removes sucrose provided by photosynthesis.
  69. what are the types of leaf placement?
    • alternate
    • opposite
    • whorled
    • spiral
    • rosette
  70. what is a simple leaf?
    a leaf with a undivided blade
  71. what is a compound leaf?
    a fully subdivided blade, each leaflet can appear as a simple leaf
  72. if a plant is mesophytic, it has what?
    adapted to either very wet or very dry conditions
  73. if a plant is hydrophytic, it has what?
    adapted to wet conditions.
  74. if a plant is xerophytic, it has what?
    adapted to dry conditions
  75. what are the organs of a plant?
    • leaves
    • stem
    • root
    • flower
    • fruit
  76. what is an atom?
    the smallest unit of matter
  77. what is a molecule?
    2 or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
  78. what is a organelle?
    a membrane bound structure in a cell that specific functions
  79. what is a cell?
    basic unit of life
  80. what are the 2 types of cells?
    • prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  81. what is tissue?
    a group of cells that have the same function
  82. what is a organ?
    a group of tissues with the same function
  83. what is an organ system?
    a group of organs that have the same function
  84. what is an organism?
    an inividual of a species, with the ability to reproduce and produce viable offspring
  85. what is a population?
    a group of people or species in the same geographical location
  86. what is a community?
    a group of different populations in the same geographic area
  87. what is an ecosystem?
    a group of communities in the same geographic location
  88. what are the organ systems of a plant?
    root system and and shoot system
  89. what are the 4 divisions of plants?
    • bryophytes
    • ferns
    • gymnosperms
    • angiosperms
  90. what are the types of roots?
    • taproot
    • storage root
    • fibrous root
  91. what is the role of the root apical meristem?
    grows towards the tip to form the root cap, and away from tip to form body of root.
  92. what does the protoderm do?
    forms the epidermus
  93. what does the procambium do?
    forms the xylem and phloem
  94. what does the ground meristem do?
    forms the cortex in both the stem and root and pith in stems.
  95. what are the conducting tissues of a plant?
    xylem and phloem
  96. what makes up phloem?
    it is composed of seive elements, parenchyma cells, fibers and sclereids.
  97. where does periderm form?
    woody palnts and perennial plants
  98. what produces the periderm?
    the cork cambium.
  99. what is bark?
  100. secretory cells are what?
    remove waste and secreation of flavors and smells that are useful attractents for pollination and for the consumption in carnivorous plants.
  101. the pericycle gives rise to what?
    branch roots and cork cambium.
  102. what are the parts of a stem?
    • main stem
    • secondary stem
    • node
    • internode
  103. what are the parts of a bud?
    • main terminal bud
    • secondary terminal bud
    • lateral bud
  104. what are modified stems?
    • stolons
    • tubers
    • corms
    • rhizomes
    • bulbs
  105. what are fusiform initials?
    they are the mother cells for xylem and phloem
  106. what are the layers of a tree, from inside-out?
    • heartwood
    • sapwood
    • vascular cambium
    • bark-living phloem and periderm
    • periderm-cork cambium and cork
  107. in which type of plant tissue would you find sclerenchyma?
    vascular tissue
  108. in phloem, what is the role of the seive cells and the companion cells?
    seive is the main transpoter cell in phloem, and the companion cell supports the seive cells
  109. xylem can be made of what 2 cells?
    • traciets(small cells)
    • veperal(big cells)
    • can also have parenchyma cells
  110. bundle sheath cells may be seen to surrounded the veins of a leaf, are they parenchyma, collenchyma, or sclerenchyma?
  111. which primary tissues develop fromthe protoderm?
  112. what tissues develop from ground meristem?
  113. what primary tissues develop from procambium?
    vascular tissue
  114. what are the 5 phases of the cell cycle?
    • interphase
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  115. what happens to a cell during interphase?
    • chromosomes not visible, but nucleus still present.
    • Image Upload 2
  116. what happens to a cell in prophase?
    nucleus can be present, chromosomes visible

    Image Upload 4
  117. what happens to a cell in metaphase?
    the chromosomes are in the middle of the cell, nucleus not present.

    Image Upload 6
  118. what happens to a cell in anaphase?
    • the chromosomes seperate.
    • Image Upload 8
  119. what happens to a cell during telophase/ cytokinesis?
    • chromosomes completely seperated, new nucleus forming, phagmoplast and cell plate present.
    • Image Upload 10
  120. the area between 2 nodes is called what?
  121. what is a tuber?
    oblong, rounded shaped, like a potato.
  122. what is a bulb?
    contains leaf bases or scales, like an onion
  123. what are rhizomes?
    found underground, sending roots and stems from nodes. like ginger or asparagus.
  124. what are corms?
    short verticle, underground stem. like a banana plant or water chesnut.
  125. the pith of a young stem is composed of what type of cells?
    parenchyma cells
  126. what is the difference between "hardwood" oak and "softwood" pine?
    hardwood contains many fibers.

    softwood contains fewer fibers and more vessels
  127. what is sapwood and heartwood?
    sapwood has active transport. heartwood does not.
Card Set
Exam 1