1. Classified by freedom of movement
    Diarthrosis (freely movable)

    Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)

    Synarthrosis (little or no movement)
  2. Classified how adjacent bones are joined


  3. span the space between bones
    Collagen Fibers
  4. Sutures
    immovable fibrous joints that bind skull bones together

    • serrate – interlocking linesl
    • coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid sutures

    lap – overlapping beveled edges

    • plane – straight, non-overlapping edgesl
    • palatine process of the maxillae
  5. Gomphoses
    attaches tooth to its socket

    -held in place by fibrous periodontal ligament

    -collagen fibers attach to cementum of tooth and jawbone

    -somewhat movable while chewing
  6. Syndesmoses

    joined by collagen fibers (ligament)

    -interosseous membrane

    -most movable fibrous joint

    -ulna/radius and tibia/fibula
  7. Synovial Joint
    -Joint in which two bones are separated by a film ofslippery synovial fluid encased by a joint capsule

    -Most are freely movable

    -Most structurally complex of all joints

    • -Young synovial joints vs. elderly synovial joints
    • -quality of life
  8. Structure of Synovial Joint
    • Articular capsule encloses joint
    • (articular) cavity

    • Outer
    • fibrous layer continuous with periosteum

    • Inner synovial
    • layer formed by synovial membrane

    Makes synovial fluid
  9. Synovial Fluid
    = slippery fluid; feeds cartilages

    fills joint (articular) cavity to provide lubrication
  10. Articular Fluid
    hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces
  11. Articular discs and menisci
    law, wrist, sternoclavicular and knee joints

    • labsorbs shock, guides bone movements and distributes
    • forces
  12. Tendons and Ligaments
    Strengthened by tendons, which attach muscle to bone

    Ligament attaches bone to bone
  13. Bursa
    fibrous sacs filled with synovial fluid

    between nearby structures so slide more easily past each other

    cushions muscles and allows tendons to slide more easily
  14. Tendon Sheaths
    elongated cylindrical bursae wrapped around a tendon

    -especially in the hands and feet
  15. Exercise and Articular Cartilage
    • -when synovial fluid is warmed it becomes less viscous and
    • more easily absorbed by articular cartilage

    -cartilage swells and becomes a more effective cushion

    • -warm-up period helps protect articular cartilage from undue wear
    • and tear

    -repetitive compression is important to articular cartilage’s nutrition

    -compression squeezes out fluid and metabolic waste

    • -when compression stops, the cartilage absorbs new synovial
    • fluid carrying oxygen and nutrients….like a sponge

    • -without exercise, articular
    • cartilage deteriorates more rapidly due to lack of oxygen, nutrients, and waste
    • removal
  16. Range of Motion
    -degrees through which a joint can move

    a measure of joint flexibility
  17. Structure of the articular surfaces (ROM)
    olecranon process and olecranon fossa

  18. Strength and tautness of ligaments and joint capsule (ROM)
    -stretching of ligaments increases range of motion

    -double-jointed people have long or slack ligaments

  19. Action of the muscles and tendons (ROM)
    nervous system monitors (proprioceptors) joint position and muscle tone-maintaining a state of tension to stabilize joints and body position
  20. Axes of Rotation
    Monoaxial joint – one degree of freedom

    Biaxial joint – two degrees of freedom

    • Multiaxial joint - shoulder joint has 3 degrees of
    • freedom

    -Some joints cannot be easily classified into any one of the 6 categories of synovial joints – TMJ has aspects of condyloid, hinge, and gliding movements
  21. 6 Types of Synovial Joints
    • 1. Ball-and-Socket Joint
    • -multiaxial, head of humerous

    • 2. Condyloid Joint
    • -biaxial, oval convex, metacarpophalangeal joint

    • 3. Saddle Joint
    • -biaxial, sternoclavicular joint

    • 4.Gliding Joint
    • -usually biaxial, bones are flat, amphiarthrosis, ankle bones

    • 5. Hinge Joint
    • -monoaxial, elbow or knee

    • 6. Pivot Joint
    • -monoaxial, spins on longitudinal axis, radioulnar joint
  22. Flexion
    decrease the angle of a joint
  23. Extension
    increases the angle of a joint straightens and returns to the anatomical position
  24. hyperextension
    extension beyond 180 degrees or beyond anatomical position
  25. abduction
    • movement of a part in the
    • frontal plane away from the midline of the body

    hyperabduction- raise arm over back or front of head
  26. adduction
    movement towards the midline

    hyperadduction-crossing fingers
  27. Elevation
    movement that raises a body part vertically in the frontal plane

    • -mandibles are elevated during biting and clavicles during
    • a shrug
  28. Depression
    lowering the body part in the same direction

    -lowering the mandible or the shoulders
  29. Protraction
    movement of a body part anteriorly in the transverse (horizontal) plane

    -thrusting the jaw forward, shoulders or pelvis forward
  30. retraction
    movement of a body part posteriorly in the transverse (horizontal) plane
  31. Circumduction
    • movement with one end of an
    • appendage remains stationary while the other end makes a circular motion

    -Sequence of flexion, abduction, extension and adduction movements

    -baseball player winding up for a pitch
  32. Rotation
    movement in which a bone spins on its longitudinal axis

    -rotation of trunk, thigh, head or arm

    • -medial (internal) rotation turns the bone inwards
    • -lateral (external) rotation turns the bone outwards
  33. Supination
    rotation of forearm so that the palm faces anteriorly or upward

    inversion and abduction of foot (raising the medial edge of the foot)
  34. Pronation
    rotation of forearm so the palm faces posteriorly or downward

    eversion and abduction of foot (raising the lateral edge of the foot)
  35. Flexion of vertebral column
    produces forward-bending movements
  36. Extension of vertebral column
    straightens trunk or neck
  37. Hyperextension of vertebral column
    looking up in the sky or bending over backwards
  38. Lateral Flexion
    tilting the head or trunk to the right or left of the midline
  39. R. or L. rotation
    twisting of the waist or turning of the head
  40. Dorsiflexion
    movement in which the toes are elevated - heel strike when walking
  41. Plantar Flexion
    movement of the foot so that the toes point downward as in standing on tiptoe
  42. 4 Tendons of Rotator Cuff Muscles
    -Supraspinatus tendon

    -Infraspinatus tendon

    -Teres minor tendon

    -Subscapularis tendon
  43. Elbow Joint
    humeroulnar and humeroradial joints + radioulnar joint
  44. Humeroulnar Joint
    trochlea of humerus joins trochlear notch of ulna

    supported by collateral ligaments – restrict side-to-side motions

    radial (lateral) collateral ligament

    ulnar (medial) collateral ligament (Tommy John Surgery)
  45. Humeroradial Joint
    capitulum of humerus joins the head of the radius
  46. proximal radioulnar joint
    the edge of the head of the radius fits into the radial notch of the ulna

    -head of radius held in place by the anular ligament encircling the head
  47. olecranon bursa
    on posterior side of elbow
  48. Knee Joint
    Largest and most complex

    Joint capsule encloses only the lateral and posterior aspects of the knee joint

    • Joint cavity contains 2 fibrocartilage “C”-shaped menisci joined by a
    • transverse ligament- absorb shock
  49. Knee joint (cont)
    • Popliteal (posterior knee region) supporting ligaments
    • -extracaspular ligaments – external to joint capsule

    • 2 collateral ligaments that prevent knee rotation
    • -fibular (lateral) collateral ligament
    • -tibial (medial) collateral ligament

    • 2 intracapsular ligaments –
    • -anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) – prevents knee hyperextension ‘locks’ knee during extension
    • -posterior curicate ligament (PCL) – stabilized femur

    13 Bursa
  50. Arthritis
    is a broad term for pain and inflammation of a joint
  51. Osteroarthritis
    results from years of joint wear…’wear-and-tear’ arthritis

    • - most common form
    • - articular cartilage softens and degenerates
    • - accompanied by crackling sounds called crepitus
    • - bone spurs develop on exposed bone tissue causing pain
  52. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    is autoimmune attack on joint
  53. Athroplasty
    replacement of diseased joint with artificial device called prosthesis
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