1. hypothesis
    an idea
  2. theory
    repeatable experiments lead to enough confidence form this.
  3. systemic anatomy
    study of the body by systems
  4. metabolism
    the sum total of all the physical and chemical reactions occuring in the body.
  5. responsiveness
    ability of an organism to sense, monitor and respond to changes
  6. conductivity
    capacity of living cells to transmit a wave of excitment
  7. levels of organization:
    • chemical(organelle)
    • cellular
    • tissue
    • organ
    • organ system
    • organisim
  8. smallest and most numerous structural units that possess and exhibit basic characteristics of living matter?
  9. bilateral symmetry
    left and right sides are mirror images
  10. 2 major body cavities:
    • ventral
    • dorsal
  11. ventral cavity
    • thoracic-r/l pleural, mediastinum(heart, major vessels, esophagus)
    • abdominoplevic
  12. dorsal cavity
    • cranial
    • spinal
  13. homeostatis
    the relatively constant states maintained by the body. standing or staying the same
  14. basic components of a feedback loop:
    • sensor mechanism
    • integrating or control center
    • effector mechanism
    • feedback
  15. negative feedback system
    • control systems are inhibitory
    • ex. feeling cold and the body shivering
  16. positive feedback system
    • control systems are stimulatory
    • ex. childbirth and the production of oxytocin
  17. of the 26 major elements how many are essential?
    • 11
    • 4(Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen) make up 96%
  18. atomic weight
    equals the number of protons and neutrons
  19. T/F
    the number of electrons orbiting the atom determine whether the atom is active?
  20. octet rule
    atoms with less than 8 e- in the outer shell will attempt to lose, gain, or share e- with other atoms to achieve stability
  21. isotopes
    elements that contain the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
  22. ionic bond
    transfer e-
  23. covalent bond
    share e-
  24. hydrogen bonds
    • result from unequal charge distribution on a molecule.
    • very weak bond, and are polar
    • ex. water
  25. synthesis reaction
    • 2 or more substances(reactants) combine to form a different, more complex substance(product)
    • A+B---->AB
  26. decomposition reaction
    • a breaking down of a compound which releases energy
    • AB---->A+B+Energy
  27. exchange reactions
    • 2 different reactants exchange to form to new products
    • AB+CD---->AD+CB
  28. catabolism
    hydrolysis reaction....breakdown larger food molecules into smaller releasing energy
  29. anabolism
    dehydration synthesis---build larger complex molecules from smaller units. requires energy in form of ATP
  30. organic compounds
    compounds composed of molecules that contain C-C or C-H covalent bonds
  31. inorganic compounds
    • have few C atoms and no C-C or C-H bonds
    • ex. water, O2. CO2, electrolytes(acids,bases,buffers)
  32. acids(proton donors)
    • release H when in a solution
    • taste sour
  33. bases(proton/H+ accepters)
    or alkaline are electrolytes that when dissociated in solution shift the H+/OH- balance in favor of OH-
  34. 4 major groups of organic substances:
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids and related molecules
  35. 3 types of carbohydrates
    • monosaccharides(simple sugars)-glucose
    • disaccharides(double sugars)
    • polysaccharides(complex sugars)
  36. lipids
    • water insolube organic biomolecules-non polar
    • triglycerides or fats
    • phospholipids
    • steriods
    • prostaglandins
  37. DNA
    contain a sugar, nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group
  38. hydrolysis
    a decomposition reaction where the addition of a water molecule breaks a bond
  39. proteins
    composed of 20 commonly occuring amino acids. only 8 are known as essential amino acids, they cannot be produced by the body.
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