Vital Signs (part 2)

  1. When does a pulse begin?
    When the Left Ventricle Contracts
  2. When does a pulse end?
    When the Left Ventricle Relaxes
  3. The peak of the wave, or the contraction of the heart is known as?
    Systole (Contration of the Heart)
  4. The trough or resting phase of the heart is known as?
    Diastole (Relaxation of the Heart)
  5. The Pusle Rate is regulated by what?
    the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
  6. What is the Normal Adult Pulse Rate?
    • 60-100 bpm
    • Average is b/t 70-80 bpm
  7. Which Node is primarily responsible for the rate of the heart?
    • The SA Node (Sino Atrial)
    • The pacemaker of the heart
  8. Which Node works with the SA node to pace the heart rate?
    The AV Node (Atrio Ventricular)
  9. What factors influence the Pulse?
    • Age (Children are more rapid than Adults)
    • Sex (Females have highre HR than males b/c of hormones)
    • Exercise (Athletes have a slower HR)
    • Food (a full stomach increases heart rate)
    • Stress
    • Fever (increases HR)
    • Disease
    • Blood Loss (increases HR)
    • Position Changes
    • Medications:
    • Narcotics (decrease HR)
    • Breathing Meds (increases HR)
  10. Which pulse location is most acurate?
    • The Apical Pulse
    • 5th ICS, MCL (on left)
  11. What makes the "Lub" heart sound (S1)?
    Closure of the Tricuspid and Mitral (AV) Valves
  12. What makes the "Dub" heart sound (S2)?
    Closure of the Aortic and Pulmonic (Semilunar) Valves
  13. What are the common Pulse points?
    • Apical (apex of heart - 1 full minute)
    • Carotid
    • Brachial
    • Radial
    • Femoral
    • Popliteal
    • Pedal
    • Posterior Tibial
  14. Inadequate Circulation could present ______ & ______
    Pallor and Cynosis
  15. A Heart Rate Less than 60 bpm is _______
  16. A Heart Rate Greater than 100 bpm is _______
  17. How long should you take a pulse if it is irregular?
    one minute
  18. How do you rate the quality of a pulse?
    • 0 = none
    • 1 + weak
    • 2 + normal
    • 3 + bounding
  19. What is the Stroke Volume?
    The quantity of blood pumped out by each contraction of the left ventricle
  20. What is the Cardiac Output?
    The Stroke Volume times the pulse (heart) rate
  21. What Factors can affect a Pulse Rate?
    Exercise, Temperature, Emotions, Drugs, Hemorrhage, Postural Changes, Pulmonary Conditions
  22. What is Respiration?
    The exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the body
  23. What are the 2 processes of Respiration?
    Mechanical and Chemical
  24. Explain the Mechanical process of Repiration.
    • Pulmonary Ventilation; breathing
    • Active movement of air in and out of the respiratory system
  25. Explain the Chemical process in Respiration.
    • Exchange of O2 and CO2
    • Transport of O2 and CO2 throughout the body
    • Exchange of gases between the capillaries and tissues
  26. What regulates repiration in the brain?
    The Medulla Oblongata and the Pons
  27. What is the most potent stimulant in normal lungs?
    CO2 (it causes you to breath in order to get rid of it)
  28. What happens if you give a COPD patient too much O2?
    The O2 will supress their respiratory drive (drive to breath)
  29. What does Hypercapnia mean?
    How do you treat it?
    • High CO2
    • Treat w/ Hypoxia (high oxygen)
  30. What are the 2 Mechanics of Respiration?
    • Inspiration
    • Expiration
  31. Explain Inspiration.
    What does it involve?
    • Drawing air into the lungs
    • Involves the ribs and diaphragm, creating negative pressure and allowing air to flow into the lungs
  32. Explain Expiration.
    Relaxation of thoracic muscles and diaphragm, causing air to expel from the lungs
  33. The diaphragm moves ______ in Inspiration and ______ in Expiration.
    down, up
  34. What is the normal Rate of Respirations?
    12 - 16 breaths per minute
  35. How should the rhythm and effort be in a normal respiration?
    regular and unlabored
  36. What should you make sure to look for in assessing repirations in a COPD patient?
    • Accessory Muscles
    • Flaring of Nostrils
    • Pursed Lips
  37. Cessation of breathing is ______
  38. Abnormally slow breathing is _______
    • Bradypnea
    • (less than 12 breaths per min.)
  39. Abnormally fast breathing is ______
    • Tachypnea
    • (more than 16-20 breaths per min.)
  40. High pitched, musical, and usually expiratory breath sounds are ______
  41. (Maybe) High pitched/popping, and usually inspiratory breath sounds are ______
  42. A piercing, high-pitched sound heard primarily during inspiration and in respiratory distress is ______
  43. Labored breathing that produces a snoring sound is _______
  44. Hyperventilation is
    • Rapid and deep breathing resulting in excess loss of CO2 (hypocapnea)
    • Client may complain of feeling light-headed and tingly
  45. Hypoventilation is
    The rate and depth of respirations are decreased and CO2 is retained
  46. What factors influence Respirations?
    • Exercise (Increases)
    • Pain (Increases)
    • Stress (Increases)
    • Smoking (Increases)
    • Fever (Increases)
    • Pulse Rate (Increases)
    • Hemoglobin (if low - Increases)
    • Disease (Both I/D)
    • Medications (Both I/D)
    • Position
  47. What do Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs) do?
    Directly measures the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and blood pH
  48. What is Pulse Oximetry, and how do you measure it?
    • Noninvasive method of monitoring respiratory status
    • Uses an external device (on the finger) that measures oxygen saturation
  49. What is a late sign of Respiratory distress that is alot of trouble?
  50. Blowing off too much CO2 is ______ and retaining too much CO2 is _______.
    Hyperventilation, and Hypoventilation
Card Set
Vital Signs (part 2)
Pulse (Heart Rate) & Respirations