1. The major tissues of the body
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous
  2. when do the major types of tissue in the body develop?
    in the embryonic period
  3. the primary germ layers?
    • endoderm
    • mesoderm
    • ectoderm
  4. Two types of epithelial tissue:
    • membranous
    • glandular
  5. Major functions of epithelial tissue:
    • protection-skin
    • sensory functions-skin, nose, eye, ear
    • secretion-hormones,mucus,digestive juices
    • absorption-exchange of gases between air +lungs
    • excretion-lining of kidney tubes
  6. 4 classifications of membranous epithelial tissues:
    • squamous
    • cuboidal
    • columnar
    • pseudostratified columnar
  7. simple epithelium
    arrangement of epithelial cells in a single layer
  8. stratified epithelium
    epithelial cells layered one on another
  9. basement membrane
    the noncellular layer of adhesive, permeable material that connects the epithelial tissue to the underlying connective tissue.
  10. simple squamous:
    • one layer of flat, scalelike cells.
    • func: absorption by diffusion
    • ex. air sacs of lungs, surface layer of pluera, pericardium, and peritoneum
  11. simple cuboidal epithelium:
    • one layer of cuboidal cells resting on a BM
    • func: sercretion and absorption
    • ex. ducts and tubes of many organs
  12. simple columnar epithelium
    • single layer of cells many of which have modified structure(goblet cells, cilia, microvilli)
    • func: protection, secretion, absorption, moving of mucus
    • ex. surface layer of the mucous lining of the stomach, intestines and part of the resp. tract
  13. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • although appearing stratified, they have one layer of cells touching the BM
    • func: protection
    • ex. found lining air passages of resp sys., and the urethra in men
  14. stratified squamous epithelium
    • multiple layers of flattened squamous cells at the free or outer layer can be keratinized and nonkera
    • func: protection
    • ex. surface of the mucous lining of mouth, esophagus, vagina(non-keratinized)
    • surface of skin(keratinized)
  15. stratified cuboidal epithelium
    • 2 or more rows of low cuboidal cells arranged randomly over a BM
    • func: protection
    • ex. ducts of sweat glands, lining of pharynx, covering of portion of epiglottis.
  16. transitional epithelium
    • a unique arrangement of differing cell shapes in a stratified or layered epithelial sheet
    • func: permits stretching
    • ex. lining of urinary bladder and ureters
  17. 2 types of glands:
    • endocrine
    • exocrine
  18. microvilli
    • fingerlike projections that increase the surface area and help absorb nutrients
    • found in the intestines
  19. extracellular matrix (ECM)
    • the material between the cells.
    • made up of proteins and proteoglycans
  20. endocrine glands
  21. endocrine glands
    • ductless glands, they discharge their secretion products(hormones) directly into blood or intestinal fluid.
    • ex. pituitary, thyroid, adrenal glands
  22. exocrine glands
    • discharge their secretion products into ducts
    • ex. salivary glands
  23. most widespread and abundant tissue?
    connective tissue
  24. tissue classification for blood?
    connective tissue
  25. cilia
    hairlike projections of cells. found in the lining of the respiratory tract
  26. function of connective tissue
    connects, supports, transports and protects
  27. 4 main types of connective tissue:
    • fibrous
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • blood
  28. major functions of adipose tissue?
    protection, insulation, support, and food reserve
  29. mesenchyme
    connective tissue that arises during embryonic development from stem cell tissue
  30. 2 major types of membranes:
    • epithelial(most common)-composed of epothelial tissue and an underlying layer of connective tissue
    • connective tissue- composed exclusively of connective tissue no epithelial cells present
  31. 3 types epithelial membrane:
    • cutaneous(skin)-covers body surfaces exposed to the external environment
    • serous(parietal,visceral,pleura,peritoneum)-lines cavities that are not open to the external environemt. composed of two layers of tissue.
    • mucous-epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior.
  32. a type of connective tissue membrane:
    synovial-line the spaces between bones and joints.
  33. location of apocrine sweat glands:
    mammary glands
  34. the different classes of cartilage and most prevalent:
    • hyaline- most prevalent
    • fibrocartilage
    • elastic
  35. hyaline cartilage
    • most prevalent type.
    • found in support rings of resp. tubes and covering the ends of bones.
    • low amounts of collagen
  36. fibrocartilage tissue
    • strongest and most durable type.
    • located in intervertrebral disks.
    • filled with a dense packing of collagen fibers
  37. elastic cartilage
    • contains few collagen fibers, but large number of fine elastic fibers that give it high degree of flexability.
    • found in external ear, and larynx
  38. major components of connective tissue and their functions:
    • Extracellular matrix(ECM)-determine it's physical characterisitcs
    • consist of fluid, gel or solid matrix with or without extracellular fibers(collagenous, reticular, and elastic)
    • proteoglycans- thicken and hold together the tissue
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