1. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)
    • focus on understanding how the disorder affects individuals' daily lives and identifying ways to help them participate more full in society
    • -considers the manifestation of a disorder and how activities and participation are impacted
  2. multimodal
    • -effective communication
    • -people use a combination of communication modalities to meet their inteded communication goals
  3. complex communication needs (CCNs)
    • -term for severe communication disorders
    • -emphasizes the importance of speech, language, and/or cognitive abilities for a person's participation in society rather than focusing solely on the disorder
  4. AAC system
    • -four different components that are used to enhance communication:
    • -symbols
    • -aids
    • -strategies
    • -techniques
  5. Symbol
    • -something that stands for something else
    • -each AAC system contains symbols that are typically classified as either aided or unaided
  6. Aided symbol
    • requires a device or accessory that is external to the body to transmit a message
    • Ex:typing a message, drawing a picture, pointing to photographs
  7. Unaided symbol
    • symbols requier only one's body
    • Ex: speaking, gesturing, vocalizing, and signing to represent meaning
  8. Acoustic Symbols
    • sounds or tones processed in the auditory system to interpret meaning
    • -In AAC systems, usually morse code
  9. Graphic Symbols
    • printed symbols that are usually represented on paper, boards or computer screens
    • -Common AAC include photographs, colored line drawings, and orthographic characters
  10. Manual Symbols
    • are produced using the body
    • Ex: gestures, sign language, facial expressions
  11. Tactile Symbols
    • can be physically manipulated
    • Ex: braille alphabet, other objects
  12. Static symbols
    • do not require movement or change to understand their meaning
    • EX: a photograph or illustration
    • AAC system uses static symbols might be one in which a child point to photos in a book to request to talk
  13. Dynamic symbol
    • require movement or change to understand their meaning
    • Ex: gestures
  14. Iconicity
    • degree to which symbols visually resemble what they refer to
    • iconic symbol is very transparent
  15. opaque symbol
    symbol has little resemblance to what it represents
  16. Aid
    • refers to a type of assistive device that is used to send or receive messages
    • -aids often supplement natural speech or writing and can augment input of information
  17. Strategy
    • the way symbols are effectively and efficiently conveyed
    • -AAC strategies intended to improve message transmission time, support grammatical formulation of messages, and enhance communication rates
  18. Technique
    • refers to the way in which messages are transmitted
    • -how an individual selects or accesses symbols
    • -2 types: direct and indirect selection
  19. direct selection
    • a direct motor act that is not dependent on time
    • -four types: physical pressure, physical contact, pointing without contact, speech or voice input
  20. Physical pressure (direct selection)
    • depression
    • -individuals select symbols using a controlled body movement to depress a key or apply sufficient pressure for activation to occur
  21. physical contact (direct selection)
    individual needs only to have physical contact with the AAC aid
  22. pointing without contact (direct selection)
    EX: eye pointing in which an individual looks at an item long enough for a communication partner to assess the person's intent
  23. speech or voice input (direct selection)
    some AAC systems can be acessed by speech or voice input to activate messages and functions
  24. Indirect selection
    3 types: scanning, directed scanning, and coded access
  25. scanning
    • single or dual switches
    • a selection set of symbols is presented in a predetermined configuration by either a communication device or a communication partner
  26. directed scanning (indirect selection)
    the se of multiple switches or a joystick interface to move a cursor to a specified target location
  27. fixed display
    • remains the same before and after a symbol is selected
    • EX: a pic of a tv on a screen remains the same and does not change when you point to it
  28. dynamic displays
    • are visual and change after a symbol is selected
    • -usually involves a computer screen presenting a visual message, typically letters or pictures
  29. hybrid displays
    use a combination of display types on the AAC system
  30. Visual screen display (VSD)
    pictures, photographs or depictions of virtual environments that represent situations, places, or experiences
  31. Needs and Wants
    • Goal: regulate behaviors of others
    • Focus: desired action or object
    • Duration: limited
    • Predictability: very predictable
  32. Information transfer
    • Goal: share info with others
    • Focus: shared info
    • Duration: lengthy
    • Predictability: not predictable
  33. Social closeness
    • Goal: establish and maintain relationships with others
    • Focus: interpersonal relationship
    • Duration: lengthy
    • Predictability: ranges from very predictable to not predictable
  34. Social etiquette
    • Goal: engage in social conventions
    • Focus: social conventions
    • Duration: limited
    • Predictability: very predictable
  35. intellectual disability
    having significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills
  36. Cerebral palsy
    • a neuromotor impairment resulting from trauma or damage to the devloping child before, during, or soon after birth
    • -ability to communicate ranges from no problem at all to having no speech
  37. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)
    group of developmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction; difficulty with verbal and nonverbal communication; and unusual, repetitive, or severely limited activities and interests
  38. Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS)
    • a speech disorder characterized by the inability to control the purposeful speech movements and sequences of speech movements.
    • -intelligibility of speech can range from mild to severe
  39. Stroke
    • occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures
    • -language expression and comprehension are frequently impacted by left-hemisphere strokes
    • -language use is also impacted by frontal-lobe and right-hemisphere strokes
  40. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    • a degenerative disease that significantly affects communication
    • aka Lou Gehrig's disease
  41. participation model
    • model of AAC assessment
    • helpful in identifying patterns and needs related to communication as well as possible barriers
  42. Opportunity barriers
    • are imposed by other people and prevent an individual's participation in communication activities
    • 5 types: policy, practice, skill, knowledge, and atitude
  43. Access barriers
    can also prevent participation in communication activities, but they stem from the capabilities, attitudes, and resources of the person using AAC
  44. Intrinsic factors toward communicative competence
    knowledge, judgment, skills, motivation to improve, attitude toward AAC, confidence and resilience
  45. Extrinsic factors toward communicative competence
    communication demands of interactions and the environment
  46. Emerging communication
    often used to describe the presymbolic behaviors of infants: gurggling babbles, burps, coughs
  47. Context-dependent communication
    individuals have reliable symbolic communication but communicate in only a few contexts or with only a few partners
  48. independent communication
    individuals are usually literate and interact with both familiar and unfamiliar communication partners in a variety of communication environments
  49. language delay
    • children exhibiting problems with language achievements are having a late start with language development and can be expected to catch up with their peers
    • -not really an accurate term
  50. late talkers
    do show delays in the earliest stages of language development; about 1/2 of these children will catch up with their peers by 3 or 4 years old and half will continue to be behind
  51. Langauge disorder and language impairment
    • most accurate representation
    • children experiencing significant challenges in language development relative to other children
  52. language learning disability
    often describes older children with language disorders who experience difficulties with academic achievement in areas associated with language
  53. specific learning disability
    children having substantial problems in one or ore of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written
  54. primary language impairment
    • a significant impariment of language in the absences of any other developmental difficulty
    • -affects 7-10% over age of 5
  55. secondary language impairment
    result of other intellectual or developmental disorders or is acquired by a brain injury
  56. etiology
  57. developmental language disorder
    • present from birth
    • primary or secondary
  58. acquired language disorder
    acquired sometime after birth, typically as the result of some type of insult or injury
  59. focal disorder
    a disorder affecting only one domain
  60. diffuse disorder
    • disorder affecting multiple domains
    • -less likely to resolve, and is viewed as more serious
  61. simultaneous bilinguals
    children who are under 5 and acquiring two languages simultaneously
  62. sequential bilinguals
    children over 5 who have a native language but are learning a second language
  63. word finding problems
    • difficulties in coming up with the right words at the right time
    • -usually accompanied by frequent pauses, filler words, a reliance on nonspecific and general words and naming errors
  64. autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
    • describes a variety of developmental conditions that are characterized by significant difficulties in social relationships, communication, repetitive behaviors, and overly restricted interests
    • 4 types of disabilities: autism, childhood disintegrative disorder, Asperger's syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder
  65. autism
    • severe developmental disability with symptoms that are present before a child's 3rd bday
    • -difficulties with social interactions with others, severe impairment of communication skill, and restricted and stereotypical behaviors and interests
  66. childhood disintegrative disorder
    children under 10 who appear to be developing normally until at least their 2nd bday but then display a significant loss or regression of skills in two or more of following areas: language, social skills, bowel control, play, or motor skills
  67. asperger's syndrome
    • "higher functioning" children with autism
    • -have substantial problems with social interation and show restricted and idiosyncratic behavioral patterns and interests
  68. pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)
    children who have severe problems with social interactions and communication and who display repetitive behaviors and overly restricted interests but do not otherwise meet the criteria for other disorders
  69. intellectual disability
    • aka mental retardation
    • condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind, which is especially characterized by impairment of skills manifested during the developmental period
  70. microsystem
    close family
  71. mesosystem
    neighborhood and community
  72. macrosystem
  73. screening
    should follow referral to determine the need for a comprehensive language assessment
  74. broad-based assessment
    examines all domains of language (form, content, use) in both comprehesion and production
  75. functional assessment
    characterizes the extent to which children's language skills impact their ability to function in home, school, and community environments
  76. false positive
    a child does not have a language disorder is diagnosed as having one
  77. false negative
    a child who has a language disorder is not accurately identified as having one
  78. child centered approaches
    • those in which the child is in the drivers seat
    • the child sets the pace and chooses the materials and the professional seeks ways to facilitate language form, content, or use in the context of child-selected activites
  79. clinician-directed approaches
    those in which the adult selects the activities and materials and sets the pace of instruction
  80. early intervention
    therapeutic interventions for children 3 yrs and under
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