PHY Exam 3

  1. Developmental Psychology
    the study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death
  2. Heredity(nature)
    The transmission of physical and psychology characteristics from parents to offspring through genes.
  3. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecular structure that contains coded genetic information
  4. Chromosomes
    Thread-like "colored-bodies" in the nucleus of each cell that are made up of DNA
  5. Genes
    Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information
  6. Polygenic Characteristic
    Personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination
  7. Maturation
    the physical growth and development of the body and nervous system
  8. Readiness
    a condition that exists when maturation has advanced enough to allow the rapid acquistion of a particular skill
  9. Environment (nurture)
    the sum of all external conditions affecting development, including especially the effects of learning.
  10. Teratogen
    Radiation, a drug other substance capable of altering fetal development in nonheritable ways that cause birth defects
  11. Sensitive Period
    During development, a period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences. Also, a time during which certain events must take place for normal development to occur.
  12. Deprivation
    in development, the loss or withholding of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, love and so forth; a condition of lacking
  13. Enrichment
    in development, deliberately making an environment more stimulating, nutritional, comforting, loving and so forth
  14. Temperament
    the physical core of personality, including emotional and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood and so forth
  15. Neonate
    newborn infant
  16. Grasping Reflex
    press an object in a neonate's palm and she will grasp it with surprising strenght. The grasping reflex aids survival by helping infants avoid falling.
  17. Sucking Reflex
    Rhythmic nursing
  18. Moro Reflex
    If a baby's position is changed abruptly or if she is startled by a loud noise, she will make a hugging motion.
  19. Social Development
    The development of self-awareness, attachement to parents or caregivers, and relationships with other children and adults.
  20. Emotional Attachement
    An especially close emotional bond that infants form with their parents, caregivers or others.
  21. Seperation Anxiety
    Distress display by infants when they are separated from their parents or principal caregivers.
  22. Secure Attachment
    A stable and positive emotional bond
  23. Insecure Avoidant Attachement
    an anxious emotional bond marked by a tendacy to avoid reunion with a parent of caregiver
  24. Insecure Ambivalent Attachment
    An anxious emotional bond marked by a tendecy to avoid reunion with a parent of caregiver.
  25. Authoritarian Parents
    Parents who enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority
  26. Overly Permissive Parents
    parents who give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or do not require the child to take responsibility
  27. Authoritative Parents
    parents who supply firm and consistent guidance combined
  28. Maternal Influences
    the aggregate of all psychological effects mothers have on their children
  29. Paternal Influences
    The aggregate of all psychological effects fathers have on their children.
  30. Assimilation
    in piaget's theory, the application of exisiting mental patterns to new sitatuions (that is, the new situtations is assimilated to existing mental schemes)
  31. Accommodation
    in piaget's theory, the modification of exisiting mental patterns to fit new demands (that is, mental schemes are change to accommodate new information or experiences)
  32. Object Permanence
    Concept, gained in infancy that objects continue to exist even when they are hidden from view.
  33. Conservation
    in piaget's theory, mastery of the concept that the weight, mass and volume of matter remains unchanged (is conserved) even when the shape or appearance of objects change.
  34. adolescence
    the culturally defined period between childhood and adulthood
  35. puberty
    the biologically defined period during which a person matures sexually and becomes capable of reproduction
  36. moral development
    the development of values, beliefs and thinking abilities that act as a guide regarding what is acceptable behavior
  37. pre-conventional moral reasoning
    moral thinking based on the consequences one's choices or actions (punishment, reward, or an exchange of favors)
  38. conventional moral reasoing
    moral thinking based on desire to please others or follow accepted rules and values
  39. post-conventional moral reasoning
    moral thinking based on carefully examined and self-chosen moral principles
  40. psychosocial dilemma
    a conflict between personal impulses and the social world
  41. ageism
    discrimintation or prejudice based on a person's age
  42. power assertion
    the physical punishment or coercion to enforce child discipline
  43. withdrawal of love
    withholding affection to enforce child discipline
  44. managment techiniques
    combining praise, recognition, approval, rules and reasoning to enforce child discipline
  45. self-esteem
    regarding oneself as a worthwhile person; a positive evaluation of ones-self
  46. consistency
    with respect to child discipline, the maintenance of stable rules of conduct
Card Set
PHY Exam 3