
involves collecting data to determine whether, and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables
correlational research

indicates the extent to which variables vary in a systematic way
common variance

refers to the probability that the results would have occured simply due to chance
statistical significance

a researcher attempts to gain insight into variables or factors that are related to a complex variable
relationship study

the most common technique uses the product moment correlation coefficient, usually referred to as the ____, a measure of correlation that is appropirate when both variables to be correlated are expressed as continuous data.
Pearson r

if the data for at least one variable are expressed as rank or ordinal data, the appropriate correlation coefficient to use is the rank difference, usually referred to as the _____
Spearman rho

the reduction in correlation coefficients that tends to occur if the measures have low reliability.
Attenuation

the variable used to predict is called the ________
predictor

the variable that is predicted is a complex variable called the _________
criterion

an attempt to determine which of a number of variables are most highly related to the criterion variable
prediction study

An interesting characteristic of prediciton studies is ______, the tendency for the predicition to be less accurate for a group other than the one on which it was originally developed
shrinkage

Any predictive relation should be subject to ________ with at least one other group, and variables no longer found to be related to the criterion measure should be removed
Cross validation

a variable that cannot be directly observed or controlled, can influence the link between predictor and criterion variables
intervening variable

