Beta Blockers, Diuretics, and Calcium Channel Blockers

  1. What is the mechanism for beta-blockers?
    blocks the effects of adrenaline on your body's beta receptors
  2. What are the Beta 1-receptors responsible for?
    heart rate and strength of your heart beat
  3. What are Beta 2-receptors responsible for?
    function of smooth muscles in blood vessels, bronchi, GI tract, and genitourinary tract
  4. Where are the adrenal glands located and what do they secrete?
    they are located on top of the kidneys; they secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
  5. What is epinephrine?
    a hormone that increases heart rate and force of heart contractions, thus increasing blood pressure
  6. what is norepinephrine?
    a hormone has strong vasoconstrictive effects, thus increasing blood pressure
  7. what are some other names for beta blockers?
    beta-adrenergic blocking agents; beta-blocking agents
  8. What are the indications for beta blockers?
    Hypertension; Angina: Helps prevent additional heart attacks in heart; attack patients; Corrects irregular heartbeat; Prevents migraine; headaches; Treat tremors
  9. What do beta-blockers reduce?
    heart rate and blood pressure
  10. are all beta blockers receptor selective?
    no some are non-selective (affecting both beta-1 and beta-2 sites
  11. What are some possible side effects of beta blockers?
    Slow heart-rate (bradycardia); Fatigue; Dizziness; Depression; Shortness of breath; Nightmares; increases skin sensitivity to sunlight
  12. Why should diabetics be careful while taking beta blockers?
    may cause blood glucose to rise, can increase glucose intolerance, can mask symptoms of hypoglycemia
  13. Why can beta blockers possibly mask hypoglycemic symptoms?
    it prevents stimulating "fight or flight" responses of the body thereby inhibiting gluconeogenesis
  14. What is the patient education for beta blockers?
    take with food to increase absorption; may increase skin sensitivity to sunlight
  15. What is the mechanism for diuretics?
    cause kidneys to remove more sodium and water from the body and relaxes the blood vessel wall resulting in lower blood pressure
  16. What class of drug is triamterene/HCTZ? What is/are the brand name(s) for it?
    diuretic; maxzide and dyazide
  17. What can triamterene be used for to treat?
    fluid retention (edema) in people with: congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the lever, nephrotic syndrome
  18. What makes triamterene different from other diuretics?
    K+ sparing, prevents body from absorbing too much salt, keeps potassium levels from getting too low, used to keep K+ in body
  19. What class of drug is hydrochlorothiazide? What is its brand name?
    diuretic; HydroDIURIL
  20. What class of drug is furosemide? What is its brand name?
    diuretic; Lasix
  21. What class of drug is spironolactone? What is its brand name?
    diuretic; aldactone
  22. Give an example of a loop diuretic:
    furosemide, torsemide, bumetamide
  23. Give an example of a thiazide diuretic:
    bendrofluazide, hydrochlorothiazide
  24. Give an example of a K+ sparing diuretic:
    amiloride, spirinolactone, triamterene
  25. What is the mechanism behind Calcium Channel Blockers?
    Inhibits the passage of calcium through the smooth muscle cells and decreases calcium availability for muscle contraction
  26. What do Calcium Channel Blockers do/treat?
    They decrease the force of contraction from the heart, lowers heart rate and blood pressure, and treats angina.
  27. What is the drug class and generic for Norvasc?
    Calcium Channel Blocker; Amlodipine
  28. What is the drug class and brand name(s) for verapamil?
    Calcium Channel Blocker; Calan, Isoptin
  29. What is the drug class and brand name(s) for Nifedipine?
    Calcium Channel Blocker; Adalat, Procardia
  30. What is the drug class and brand name(s) for Felodipine
    Calcium Channel Blocker; Plendil
  31. What is the deal with HTN medications and OTC cough/cold medications?
    Avoid them until checking with a doctor. Taking one with a decongestant in it can increase blood pressure
  32. What are some of the side effects of Calcium Channel Blockers?
    edema, flushing, headache, fatigue, abdominal pain
  33. Tell me about angina:
    it's chest pain and discomfort that occurs when heart doesnt get the blood and oxygen it needs. Coronary arteries can become clogged with angina
  34. What are some of the chest symptoms associated with angina?
    tightness, heaviness, burning, may spread up arm, back, and neck
  35. What is Nitroglycerin (NTG)?
    it's a vasodilator that treats angina, CHF, and hypertensive emergencies
  36. What forms does NTG come in? What's important to know about one of the forms?
    It comes in patches and subligual tabs (among others). With the sublingual tablets make sure not to crush or chew and also it has to be kept in a glass container.
  37. With taking NTG for an emergency what is the important "rule"?
    If anginal chest pain is unresolved in 15 minutes, seek emergency medical help at once.
  38. What are some side effects associated with NTG?
    headache, dizziness, hypotension
  39. What is the drug class and brand name(s) for Diltiazem?
    Calcium Channel Blocker; Cardizem and SR, Dilacor, Tiazac
  40. What are the brand names for triamterene with HCTZ?
    Maxzide, Dyazide
  41. What is the drug class and brand names for Labetalol?
    Beta Blocker; Normodyne and Trandate
  42. What are the B-1 Beta Blocker medications?
    atenolol, atenolol & chlorthalidone, metoprolol, bisoprolol & HCTZ
  43. What beta blocker medications are non-selective with alpha-1 blocking activity?
    Carvedilol and Labetalol
  44. Which beta blocker medication is non selective without any alpha-1 blocking activity?
Card Set
Beta Blockers, Diuretics, and Calcium Channel Blockers
Drug Cards