1. What are lipids? What are they used for and what are the two main types?
    lipids are fats; they are used for fuel; the two main types are cholesterol and triglycerides
  2. what do antihyperlipidemic medications do?
    lower lipid levels in the body
  3. What are the characteristic of cholesterol? Where is it found?
    soft, fat-like, waxy; found in blood stream and in all the body's cells
  4. What do high levels of cholesterol lead to?
    increase blood pressure, heart disease, and increase risk of diseases
  5. Carried in the blood in the form of ________.
  6. Cholesterol ______ be dissolve in the blood?
  7. What are the three types of cholesterol?
    LDL, HDL, and VLDL
  8. What is LDL cholesterol? What does it do? What is the desired level?
    bad cholesterol; it carries cholesterol TOWARDS the tissues, builds up in the inner wall of the arteries, forms plaque, leads to atherosclerosis (clogs the arteries and impedes blood flow to the brain, heart, kidneys, etc); desired level is <100 mg/dl
  9. What is HDL cholesterol? What does it do? What is the desired level?
    good cholesterol; high levels seem to protect against heart attack, carries cholesterol away from the arteries (back to tyhe liver) which removes excess cholesterol from the blood), protects against cardiovascular disease; desired level is >40 mg/dl (<40 mg/dl causes increased risk of heart disease
  10. What is VLDL? Are they good or bad? What do they have to do with TG?
    very low density lipoprotein; considered bad; they contain the highest amount of TG of all the types of cholesterol, VLDL levels will decrease as TG levels decrease
  11. What are triglycerides? What are normal values for TG? How are TG made in the body?
    they are the chemical form in which most fat exists in food and in the body; normal values are <150 mg/dl; calories not used immediately by tissues are converted to TG and stored in fat cells
  12. What are anti-hyperlipidemics? what are they often referred to as?
    HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors; often referred to as "statin" drugs
  13. What is the mechanism for statins and what do they do?
    it inhibits the HMG-CoA reductase; they reduce intracellular cholesterol levels and increase the clearance of LDL lipoproteins from the bloodstream
  14. What are the common side effects associated with statins?
    constipation and muscle pain
  15. Which patients should not take statins?
    ones with acute liver disease and ones who consume large amounts of alcohol
  16. what is some consultation info to give patients about statins?
    do not take if pregnant or trying to get pregnant (women), do not take with grapefruit or grapefruit juice; make sure to get liver function test every 4-6 weeks for the first 15 months of therapy
  17. What do statins do?
    lower LDLs by 30-55%, lowers total cholesterol, helps with some reduction in TG, helps with some increase in HDL; lowers risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and death
  18. What vitamin is Niaspan?
    Vit B-3
  19. Where does Niaspan function?
    in the digestive system, skin, and nerves
  20. Is Niaspan usually effective by itself?
    No, usually used in combination with another medication
  21. What effects does Niaspan have on cholesterol?
    decreases TG, increases HDLs, and decreases LDL
  22. What is the biggest adverse effect of niaspan?
  23. what should the patient be consulted on with Niaspan?
    take at bedtime with snack and swallow whole
  24. what is the brand name for fenofibrate what is its drug class?
    Tricor; in the fibrate drug class
  25. what effects does tricor have on cholesterol and TG levels?
    decreases LDLs, decreases TG, increases HDL
  26. What should the patient be consulted on with fenofibrate?
    monitor liver function tests periodically, rash may occur
  27. what is the brand name for atorvastatin?
  28. what is the brand name for simvastatin?
  29. what is the brand name for pravastatin?
  30. what is the brand name for lovastatin?
  31. what is the brand name for rosuvastatin?
  32. what is the brand name for ezetimibe?
  33. what is the brand name for niacin?
  34. what is the brand name for ezetimibe/simvastin?
  35. what is the brand name for gemfibrozil?
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Drug Cards