Foundation of Human Behavior in the Social Environment

  1. What are some common defense mechanisms?
    • Denial
    • Identification with the aggressor
    • Intellectualization
    • Projection
    • Reaction formation
    • Regression
    • Repression
    • Sublimation
    • Withdrawal
  2. Denial
    Avoidance of unpleasant realities by ignoring or refusing to acknowledge them; probably the simplest and most primitive defense mechanism.
  3. Identification With The Aggressor
    Increasing feelings of worth by taking on the attributes of people or institutions of greater power, strength, or importance.
  4. Intellectualization
    Creating emotional distance through rationalizing or using logic.
  5. Projection
    Blaming others for one's own shortcomings and mistakes; unconsciously ascribing to others one's own unacceptable impulses and desires

    -Example: A person with a tendenc to be lazy criticizes others for laziness
  6. Reaction Formation
    Developing attitudes and behaviors that are the opposite of repressed and unconscious dangerous or unpleasant impulses and esires

    -Example: Expressing abhorrence of homosexuality when one has repressed homosexual feelings.
  7. Regression
    Retreating to behaviors that were appropriate in earlier stage of development that brings easy satisfaction of desires or needs

    -Example: Temper Tantrums
  8. Repression
    Unconscious process whereby painful or dangerous thoughts and desires are excluded from consciousness. These can be revealed through dreams, jokes, or slips of the tongue.
  9. Sublimation
    Consciously satisfying socially unacceptable needs and desires through socailly acceptable activities; probably the most advanced defense mechanism.

    -Example: Playing football to satisfy aggressive impulses
  10. Withdrawal
    Retreating into solitude to avoid painful emotions and situations.
  11. What is meant by a "psychodynamic" theory?
  12. What were Freud’s five stages of development?
    • Oral Stage
    • Anal Stage
    • Phallic Stage
    • Latency Stage
    • Genital Stage
  13. Oral Stage (Birth-18 Months)
    Pleasure centers on activities of the mouth, including feeding, sucking, chewing, and biting. Child focuses on receiving and taking.
  14. Anal Stage (18 Months-3 Years)
    Pleasure centers on anal activities such as toileting. Child focuses on giving and withholding.
  15. Phallic Stage (3-6 Years)
    Pleasure centers on the genitals and self-manipulation. In this stage, children experience the Oedipus and Electra complexes, resulting in castration anxiety.
  16. Latency Stage (6 Years-Puberty)
    Sexual instincts are unaroused, and the child focuses on play, learning, and socialization.
  17. Genital Stage (Puberty On)
    Pleasure centers on love, work, and maturing sexually.
  18. What are the id, ego, and superego?
    The three concepts or mental structures thoughts to be at the crux of personality.
  19. Id
    An element of our unconscious, which is made up of our basic needs and drives such as sex, thirst, and hunger. The pleasure principle governs the id to ensure that needs are satisfied. When needs are not met, the id creates tension until the drive or need is satisfied.

    Example, many infant behaviors such as sucking and crying are driven by the id; these behaviors help to ensure that the ned for food is met.
  20. Ego
    The rational aspect of the mind. When children gain experience, their ego develops, which helps keep the id in check. Thus, a child learns to decide rationally how to meet the id's needs in ways that are socially acceptable. The reality principle governs the ego by ensurring that actions are evaluated according to their consequences. Neither the id nor the ego has mental components. They are not concerned with what is right or wring, just with what is needed (in the case of the id) or what is reasonable (in the case of the ego).
  21. Superego
    Or conscience. It is based on society's morals and values, which Freud believed are incorporated into the superego between the ages of three and five. The superego tells the person what is right and wrong. So, if the id wants something that the superego does not approve of, the superego creates anxiety or guilt, forcing the ego to suppress the drive. The go would then find a way to meet the need that is in accordance with the supperego (or with societal values). In this sense, the ego is the mediator between the id and the superego, ensuring that neither dominates.
  22. What is Erik Erikson’s psychodynamic theory of development?
    • Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    • Intiative vs. Guilt
    • Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Identity vs. Identity Confusion
    • Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • Integrity vs. Despair
  23. Stage One: Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth-18 Months)
    Children learn to trust others, particularly their caregivers. Infants learn that they can count on their caregivers to give them food, shelter, and love, and to meet their needs. If their needs are not meet, infants learn to mistrust others.
  24. Stage Two: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 Months-3 Years)
    Children learn to do things, such as eat and dress, independently. Through accomplishing various tasks, children gain a sense of self-confidence. If children's independence is not encouraged, or if they are punished for acting on things independently, they can develop a sense of self-doubt.
  25. Stage Three: Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 Years)
    Children are active in their environment. They need to take initiative to learn, explore, and manipulate their surroundings. Children who are encouraged to do so will develop skills that allow them to pursue goals and interests in the future. Children who are discouraged will lack confidence to act on their interests and will not take the initiative to shape their lives.
  26. Stage Four: Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 Years)
    Children need to be productive and have successful experiences. Children are busy playing and learning, giving them opportunities to master various tasks. Children who are able to find ways to succeed will learn to be industrious. Those who experience repeated failures will develop feelings of inferiority, hampering their chances of success in the future.
  27. Stage Five: Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Adolescence)
    Adolescents are exploring who they are and developing their sense of identity. They try our trole sfor the future and integrae these into their sense of self. Adolescents who have difficulty integrating their roles into their identity will experience confustion about who they are.
  28. Stage Six: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)
    Young adults are looking for intimacy and closemess in their relationships. They learn to give and take with a significat other without sacrifincing their identities. If they are unable to establish intimacy, they are at risk for isolation as they move into adulthood.
  29. Stage Seven: Generativity vs. Stagnation (Adulthood)
    Adults are involved in investing in their work, families, communities, and future generations. They begin to look past their own lives to the well-being of those around them. Adult who are unable to do thies never move past investing in themselves and are self-absorbed. They become stagnated and are unable to be productive for the sake of others.
  30. Stage Eight: Integrity vs. Despair (Old Age)
    People in older age reflect on their lives and take inventory of their successes. People who are satisfield with what they have accomplished have a sense of well-being and peace. Those who are not satisfied have a sense of despair, and they mourn for lost opportunitiies.
  31. What is Classical Conditioning theory?
    • Type of learning that focuse on how people respond to stimuli in their environment.
    • -Ivan Pavlov

    Example: Pavlov dogs experiment
  32. Unconditioned Stimulus
    Somethng that occurs naturally that elicits a response.

    • Example: Pavlov dogs experiment
    • -Food
  33. Unconditioned Response
    A response that accurs naturally or has not been learned.

    • Example: Pavlov dogs experiment
    • -Salavation
  34. Conditioned Stimulus
    Something that does not naturally elicit a response is manipulated to elicit a response.

    • Example: Pavlov dogs experiment
    • -Bell
  35. Conditioned Response
    A response that is learned.

    • Example: Pavlov dogs experiment
    • -Salivation to the bell
  36. What is Operant Conditioning theory?
    • Type of learning that focuses on the consequences of behavior as they relate to behavior change.
    • -B. F. Skinner
  37. Reinforcement
    A consequence occurring right after a behavior that increases its strength.

    • -Two Types
    • --Positive
    • --Negative
  38. Positive
    Something positive is added to strengthen a behavior

    Example: After a child cleans her room, she may receive praise or get to watch her favorite movie.
  39. Negative
    Something negative is taken away to strenthen a behaivor.

    Example: You get into your car and hear a buzzer. That buzzer is annoying, and the only way to get it to stop is by latching your seat belt. Once you do that, the buzzing sound stops. The annoying buzzer stops, or is taken away, every time you put on your seat belt. The desired behavior, wearing your seat belt, is negatively reinforced, or strengthened, by the buzzer turning off.
  40. Punishment
    The application of somethng negative or the removal of something positive to weaken or reduce the frequency of a behavior.
  41. What is Social Learning Theory?
    A Theory positing that people are active agents in their learning.
  42. Modeling
    A social learning theory concept that suggests that people can learn vicariously, or through watching others.
  43. Self-efficacy
    The expectation that people have that they can successfully perform a task.
  44. Systematic Desensitization
    Behavioral technique to lessen a response, such as fear, to a stimulus.
  45. What information is coded on the different Axis of a DSM diagnosis?
    • Axis I: Clinical disorders or other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention.
    • Axis II: Personality disorders or mental retardation.
    • Axis III: General medical conditions.
    • Axis IV: Psychosocial and enviornmental problems.
    • Axis V: Global assessment of functioning.
  46. Axis I
    • Clinical disorders or other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention.
    • -Disorders such as:
    • --Dementia
    • --Substance Abuse
    • --Schizophrenia
    • --Mood
    • --Anxiety
    • --Sleep
    • --Eating
    • --Adjustment Disorders
  47. Axis II
    • Personality disorders or mental retardation
    • -Personality Disorders such as:
    • --Paranoid
    • --Antisocial
    • --Narcissistic
    • --Borderline
    • --Mental Retardation
  48. Axis III
    • General medical conditions. This axis describes current medical conditions that are relevant to disorders recorded on axes I and II.
    • -Diseases Included:
    • --Blood
    • --Skin
    • --Nervous
    • --Resiratory
    • --Digestive
    • --Circulatory Systems
  49. Axis IV
    • Psychosocial and environmental problems. This axis describes problems in the client's life that may be relevant to the diagnoses recorded on the previous three axes.
    • -Problems Included:
    • --Primary Support Group
    • --Social Environment
    • --Health Care System
    • --Legal system
    • --Problems with Educatin
    • --Housing
    • --Employment
  50. Axis V
    • Global assessment of functioning. On this axis, the social worker assigns a number to reflect the client's overall level of functioning.
    • The scale that the social worker uses.
    • -Range 1 (persistent danger of severely hurting self or others) to 100 (superior functioning in a wide range of activities.
  51. What are some causes of low birth weight and other complications of pregnancy?
    • Low Birth Weight
    • -Preterm
    • -Low birth weight
    • -Very low birth weight
    • -Extremely low birth weight

    • Birth Defects
    • -Alcohol and Drugs
    • --Fetal Alchol Syndrome (FAS)
    • -Rh Incompatibility
    • -Environmental Toxins
    • -Parental Age
    • -Maternal Diseases
    • -Genetical Disorders
    • --Down Syndrome
    • --Spina Bifida
  52. Low Birth Weight
    • Preterm-Babies born three weeks or more befor the pregnancy has reached full term (35 weeks or less).
    • Low Birth Weight-Babies who Weigh less than 5 1/2 pounds at birth.
    • Very Low Birth Weight-Babies who weigh less than 3 pounds at birth.
    • Extremely Low Birth Weight-Babies who weigh less than 2 pounds at birth.
  53. Birth Defects
    • Alcohol and Drugs
    • -Fetal Alchol Syndrome (FAS)-A cluster of characteristics that occur in some infants who have been exposed to alcohol prenatally.
    • Rh Incompatibility
    • Environmental Toxins
    • Parental Age
    • Maternal Diseases
    • Genetical Disorders
    • -Down Syndrome-Occurs when a fetus has an extra chromosome attached to chromosome pair number 21.
    • -Spina Bifida-A defect that affeccts the backbone and sometime the spinal cord. It occurs when the neural tube does not close completely during development.
  54. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
    • Stages
    • -Sensorimotor Stage
    • -Properational Stage
    • -Concrete Operations Stage
    • -Formal Operations Stage
  55. Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2 years)
    Children begin to coordinate their actions through reflexes and they learn that they can get pleasurable results by reproducing certain actions. A child's preoccupation move away from the self to the outside world. By the end of this stage, children have attained primitive symbolic capacities that allow them to hold rudimentary pictures of objects or words for objects in their minds. The major accomplishment is object permanence.
  56. Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
    Children show characteristics of egocentrism, animism, centration, classification, seriation, and irreversibility.
  57. What is object permanence?
    This is when children learn that even if object and events are out of the range of their senses, they continue to exist

    -Example: When Mom leaves the room, she hasn't disappeared
  58. What is conservation?
    Children cannot understand that an object remains the same even if its characteristics change, such as its shape or the way it is contained.

    -Example: If a child were shown a cup of juice, she would think that the amount of juice was different if it were poured into a different-shaped container.
  59. How does Erikson's first stage relate to attachment theory?
    • Erikson
    • -Trust vs. Mistrust-Children learn to turst other, particularly their caregivers. Infants learn that they can count on their caregiver to give them food, shelter, and love, and meet their needs.

    • Attachment Theory
    • -The bond or relationship between an infant and her/his caregiver.
  60. What age do most children speak their first words?
    Between 10 and 15 months of age.
  61. What age do most children take their first steps?
    11-14 months Infants can walk without support
  62. At what age does separation anxiety usually begin?
    It can maifest itself as early as 8-9 months of age, but it more typically appears at around 12-18 months and then gradually decreases after 18 months.
  63. A feeling that causes some kind of physiological, behavioral, or cognitive response refers to what?.
  64. What is Social Referencing?
    Skill in which children can detect emotional cues in others and respond to the appropriately.
  65. The bond development between an infant and their caregiver is referred to as what?.
  66. What is meant by the term, “Temperament”?
    The consistent ways in which we each respond, behaviorally and emotionally, to our environment.
  67. What are the four parenting styles?
    • Authoritarian
    • Authoritative
    • Neglectful
    • Indulgent
  68. Authoritarian
    Parent is controlling and insists on conformity; establishes rules and ideas about how child should behave. This style is associated with children who are unhappy, fearful, and anxious and who lack initiative and communication skills.
  69. Authoritative
    Parent offers some control, consisten support, and compromise; encourages independence with limits and negotiation. This styple is associated with children who are cheerful, motivated, and self-directed and who demonstrate social compentence in communication and cooperation.
  70. Neglectful
    Parent is univolved with the child; offers little structure for or control over the child. This style is associated with children who have low self-esteem and poor self-control and who are immature and socially incompetent.
  71. Indulgent
    Parent is highly involved with child; does not offer much structure for or control over the child; makes few demands of the child. This style is associated with children who show poor self-control and a lack of respect for others.
  72. What relationship does birth order have with development of children?
    Generally, first-born children tend to have more access to parental time and energy than later-born children, and parents show more engagement in first-born children's lives.
  73. What are four types of child maltreatment?
    • Physical Abuse
    • Sexual Abuse
    • Emotional Abuse
    • Neglect
  74. What is a social worker’s duty for reporting suspected child abuse?
    Are mandated by federal law to report suspected abuse.
  75. What is Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
    Individuals can possess competencies in many areas, including linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, and natural.
  76. How does Bandura’s theory relate to peer groups?
    Bandura refers to modeling and social learning...The theory highlight the need for children to have peers as reference points as they explore their environments, express their opinions, try on new roles, and test their social, physical, and academic capabilities.
  77. What are the signs of puberty?
    Rapid physical and sexual growth, and it is often accompanied by hormonal, emotional, and other changes.
  78. What are Primary Sex Characteristics?
    Aspects of development that are directly related to reproduction.
  79. What are Secondary Sex Characteristics?
    Aspect related to gender but not directly related to reproduction.
  80. How has the age of menarche changed in the past 100 years?
    • Secular Trend-Pattern toward earlier onset of development in industrialized countries.
    • -Due to improved sanitation, nutrition, and related factors, it has slowed down somewhat over the past few decades.
  81. What are the characteristics of Piaget's formal operational thought?
    Teens are able to think more abstractly than youger children. Adolescents move away from concrete thinking to think hypothetically about situations. They use reason and logic and take the perspective of others when considering situations.
  82. What is meta-thought (aka meta-cognition)?
    The ability to think about thinking.
  83. Compare and contrast Kohlberg’s and Gilligan’s theories of moral development.
    • Kohlberg
    • -Level 1: Preconventional Reasoning
    • -Level 2: Conventional Reasoning
    • -Level 3: Postconventional Reasoning

    • Gilligan
    • -Level 1: Orientation to Personal Survival
    • -Level 2: Goodness as Self-Sacrifice
    • -Level 3: The morality of Nonviolent Responsibility
  84. Level 1: Preconventional Reasoning (Conventional Role Conformity)
    At this level, people have not internalized moral values. Rather, Moral thinking is ruled by rewards and punishments.

    • -Stage1: Punishment and obedience orientation. People make decisions aboaut what is good and bad to avoid punishment.
    • -Stage 2: Naive instrumental hedonism. People obey rules to get rewarded.
  85. Level 2: Conventional Reasoning (Role Conformity)
    At this level,people value the opinions of others. Behavior is guided by external social expectations.

    • -Stage 3: Good boy/girl mentality. People behave in ways that pleases others.
    • -Stage 4: Authority-maintaining morality. People strongly believe in law and order. Social order is paramount and people will defer to higher authority to guide behavior.
  86. Level 3: Postconventional Reasoning (Self-Accepted Moral Principles)
    At this level, people have internalized moral values. Morality extends beyond laws and self-interest.

    • -Stage 5: Morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law. People view laws and social order as necessary; however, laws need to be questioned in light of the common good.
    • -Stage 6: Morality of individual priniciples and conscience. People's behavior is based on internal principles of what is right and wrong. People make decisions based on what is right for the common good, regardless of whether or not decisions go against law or higher authority.
  87. Level 1: Orientation to Personal Survival
    This level describes women's orientation to self-interest and survival. Consideration of others is not important.

    -Transition 1: Transition from personal selfishness to responsibility. Women begin to take the considerations of others into account in moral reasoning. Self is still important, but women realize that the well-being of others is also important.
  88. Level 2: Goodness as Self-Sacrifice
    Women see morality as sacrificing their own nedds for the sake of others. Women become dependent on the perspectives of others, to the point that they may sacrifice therir own needs and feelings.

    -Transition 2: From goodness to reality. Women are able to balance the needs of others with their own. They consider what is best for others as well as themselves and make decisions that will benefit both.
  89. Level 3: The Morality of Nonviolent Responsibility
    At this level, women think about the consquences of their moral decisions. Opinions of others are not as important as the integrity of their decisions and the impact those decisions will have on everyone's well-being.
  90. What is self-esteem?
    Refers to an overall evaluation of the self.
  91. How are Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa different?
    • Anorexia Nervosa
    • -A disorder characterized by behaviors that lead to extreme thinness; it tends to develop in the early and nmiddle teen years.

    • Bulimia Nervosa
    • -A disorder characterized by a consistent earing binge and purge pattern, which occurs through exercise, vomiting, or laxative use.
  92. Which industrialized nation is the leader in adolescent drug use?
    National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  93. What is the leading cause of death among people aged 10 to 24?
  94. Who is more likely to have suicidal thoughts, males or females?
  95. Who is most likely to commit suicide?
    Boys are more likely to die from suicide thang girls, with 83 percent of deaths being boys.
  96. What are some of the risk factors for teen suicide?
    • Feelings of Hopelessness
    • Alcohol
    • Drug Use
    • Physical and Sexual Abuse
    • Lack of Family Supports
    • Previous Suicidal thoughts and Attempts.
  97. What are some of the risk factors for teen pregnancy?
    Health problems
  98. What are some statistically likely outcomes for a teen parent?
    Girls who become pregnant in their teen years are morel likely to come from impoverished environments, drop out of high school, and spend much of their lifetime as single parents dependent on publickassistance than teens who delay childbirth until adulthood.
  99. What are some statistically likely outcomes for her child?
    Children born to teens are more likely than children born to older parents to be incarcerated, to drop out of school or have low academic achievement, and to become teen parents themselves.
  100. What are some factors associated with teen violence at the Micro level? Mezzo? Macro?
    Micro: being male; substance use; low educational achievement; low impulse control; feelings of powerlessness; childhood aggression, hyperactivity, and withdrawal.

    Mezzo: family conflict, lack of familial support and discipline, negative peer pressure.

    Macro: poverty, living in high-crime urban neighborhoods, exposure to violence through the media and social enviornment.
  101. Merits of different types of sex education.
  102. What is Heterosexism?
    The prejudice or discrimination in favor of those who are heterosexual (and against those who are homosexual).
  103. What is Homophobia?
    A type of prejudice that implies a fear of or anger, disgust, or discomfort with homosexuals and homosexuality.
  104. How does social learning theory relate to domestic violence?
    Violence is cyclical and can be passed on from generation to generation.
  105. How does systems theory relate to domestic violence?
    Violence is cyclical and can be passed on from generation to generation.
  106. How does Feminist theory relate to domestic violence?
    Patriarchal society, which gives power to men, perpetuates the problem of violence against women and children.
  107. What percentage of physical violence against women (in the US) is from husbands?
    Almost 80 percent.
  108. What is Sexism?
    Stereotyping and generalizing about women and men and treating them in particular ways based on these stereotypes.
  109. Why does the book argue that prevention is the best way to address sexual harassment?
  110. What is Affirmative Action?
    Policy that makes illegal any discrimination based on race, color, or national origin. Affrimative action requires employers and other institutions to actively recruit women and other institutions to actively recruit women and other minority group members.
  111. What does the book say is, “…one of the most troublesome changes that occurs with middle age..?”
    the person's physical appearance.
  112. What types of physical changes are expected in middle adulthood?
    • Some declines i metabolism, energy level , eyesight, hearing, muscle tone.
    • Increase in appearance of wrinkles, gray hair, thinning hair.
    • Increased weight gain.
    • Increase prevalence of chronic illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.
    • Women undergo menopause, and men may experience a male climacteric.
    • Problems in sexual functioning may occur.
  113. What types of cognitive changes are expected in middle adulthood?
    • Some declines in memory, reaction time if not cognitively active.
    • Increases in cognitive performance can occur because new information is linked with past experiences.
    • Increased problem-solving skills.
    • Increased creativity.
  114. What is Erikson’s psychosocial crisis for this stage, and what does it mean?
    • ...the psychological and social ramifications of physical aging.
    • ...a time when people are investing in their work, families, and community.
  115. What is Menopause?
    The cessation of a woman's menstral cycle.
  116. What effects might menopause have on a woman?
    ...decreased lubrication of the vigina, making intercourse uncomfortable or painful. Other symptoms that some women experience include headaches, insomnia, hot flashes, thinning hair, weight gain, skin changes, and growth of hair in unwanted places, including increased facial hair.
  117. What reactions might a woman have to menopause?
    • Psychological Dimension
    • -coping skills
    • -support systems
    • -general attitudes about life and aging.
    • -anxiety
    • -depression
    • -lowered self-esteem

    • Cultural Dimension
    • -negatively
    • --identifying it with aging
    • --the loss of vitality
    • --the loss of attractiveness
    • --end of the reproductive years
    • -natural progression
  118. What is the Male Climacteric?
    The time period between 35 and 60 when many men may reevaluate their careers, familial relationships, and other life decisions they have made.
  119. Is there such a thing as a midlife crisis?
    Yes; The various process associated with the male climacteric, espcially the psychological process.
  120. What are the most common diseases in middle adulthood?
    • Diabetes
    • Arthritis
    • Hypertension
    • Heart Disease
  121. Which ethnic groups are most prone to developing diabetes?
    Native Americans/Alaskan Natives
  122. In Sternberg’s theory of love?
    • Different types and combinations of love.
    • -Passion (Infatuation)
    • -Intimacy (Liking)
    • -Commitment (Empty Love)
    • -Romantic Love
    • -Companionate Love
    • -Fatuous Love
  123. Passion (Infatuation)
    the "head over heels" kind of love in which an individual is preoccupied with thoughts of the other person
  124. Intimacy (Liking)
    • love that results in feeling close to each other.
    • -Couples have a sense of rapport, a sense of "we", and they respect and look out for each other.
    • -Couples who experience intimate love enjoy spending time together.
  125. Commitment (Empty Love)
    • no elements of closeness.
    • -Couples have a steady, enduring, and predictable relationship in which partners trust and are devoted to each other, but they do not necessarily share some of the deeper, intimate feelings associated with passionate love.
  126. Romantic Love
    ...a combination of intimate and passionate love, describes people who are drawn to each other with feelings of closeness an dintense attraction.
  127. Companionate Love
    ...a combination of intimate and commitment love, feel close to each other and are committed, but the relationship lacks an element of passion.
  128. What is fatuous love?
    ...a combination of passionate and commitment love. This is the "silly" love in which people become quickly and intensely involved and might even rush into marriage or move in together right away.
  129. Consummate Love
    ...a combination of all three components
  130. Non-Love
    Lack of all elements.
  131. What are some effects that divorce can have on people?
    • -shorter life spans
    • -divorced men exhibit higher suicide rates
    • -women are the ones who suffer financially
  132. What is the Empty Nest Syndrome?
    The supposedly negative effects that parents experience when their last child leaves the home.
  133. What is the Sandwich Generation?
    This occurs when parents find themselves caring for their children as well as their parents.
  134. What is Ageism?
    Negative attitudes towards aging and older people based on beliefs that older people cannot function as well as younger people in society.
  135. How ageism manifested?
    ...often lead to discrimination or treating people differently...
  136. What is the difference between Functional Age and Chronological Age?
    • Functional Age
    • -A measure that looks at age with regard to how well people perform their usual roles in their daily lives

    • Chronological Age
    • -A person's age in years.
  137. What age groups are associated with Young-Old, Middle-Old, and Oldest-Old?
    • Young-Old
    • -Includes people from 65-74

    • Middle-Old
    • -Incluudes those from 75-84

    • Oldest-Old
    • -Includes those 85 or older
  138. What is Osteoporosis?
    A disease that causes the cartlage that covers the joints to deteriorate over time. This deterioration is caused when enzymes break down cartilage during normal use of the joints.
  139. What are other physical changes that occur in late life?
    • Declines in bone and muscle mass.
    • Increased prevalence of diseases such as arthritis and osteoporosis.
    • Increased appearance of wrinkles, gray hair, loose skin, age spots.
    • Loss of teeth and dental problems.
    • Increased vision and hearing problems.
    • Declines in cental nervous system functioning affecting reaction time, coordination.
  140. What are other cognitivechanges that occur in late life?
    • Increased prevalence of dementias.
    • Some declines in memory and functioning if not cognitively active.
  141. What is Dementia?
    Mental disorders that are caused by deterioration of the brain.
  142. What is the most common form of dementia?
    Alzheimer's Disease
  143. What is the only 100% accurate way to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease?
    ...the only way to confirm a diagnosis is through an autopsy after death.
  144. Know about older adults and suicide.
    • -increases with age, particularly among Caucasian elderly ment age 85+
    • -elderly people are also more likely than younger people to complete suicide.
  145. What is Disengagement Theory?
    First theory proposed to describe social processes of aging.
  146. What is Continuity Theory?
    Theory that emphasizes the role that our personality has in determining the outcomes of older age.
  147. What is Activity Theory?
    Theory that states that it is not necessarily normal or natural for people to "drop out" of life as they age.
  148. What are the stages of the Kubler-Ross’s model of grief? For what types of grief is the model useful?
    • Denial
    • Anger
    • Bargaining
    • Depression
    • Acceptance
  149. Stage One: Denial
    This is the initianl stage in which people first learn the news that they or someone they know is dying. Denial can be useful in that it helps to protect the person against the shock of receiving such news. People in the denial stage might respons with, "No, not me," or "There must be a mistake," or "Why my child?"
  150. Stage Two: Anger
    Once a perosn has worked through denial, a typical reaction to suface is anger. People often respond with anger as a way to work throught their intense feelings. People may lash out at their care providers, family members, or even God. Some anger-based responses might include, "Why me?" or " Why would God do this?" or "What did I do to deserve this?"
  151. Stage Three: Bargaining
    Once the anger has dissipated, people may try to bargain with health care professionals or God to retore their health. Typical responses incllude, "If you'll just give me more time, I'll..." , or, "I promis I'll do better if you'll just let me live." Kubler-Ross found that even people who didn't believe in God would often engage in bargaining with a higher power.
  152. Stage Four: Depression
    Once people realize that bargaining isn't working, they frequently become depressed. Sometimes the depression is active: People actively grieve their losses or potential losses. Sometimes depression is passive: People become silent and turn inward.
  153. Stage Five: Acceptance
    This stage ocurs after people have worked through the preceding stages and have attained a sense of peace with the realization that they (or a loved one) will die. If people reach this stage, they are often able to resolve unfinished busines and bring closure to their relationships and lives.
  154. What are some of the issues that grandparents raising grandchildren face?
    • legal issues when taking on primary-care responsibilities for their grandchildren.
    • -legal guardianship
    • -financial support
    • -other support
  155. What are ADLs and IADLs?
    • Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
    • -Include tasks related to personal care such as eating, walking, dressing, bathing, toileting, and getting in and out of bed.

    • Instrumental Acctivities in Daily Living (IADLs)
    • -Include tasks related to independent living such as housework, shopping, preparing meals, managing money, and using a telephone.
  156. Who is most likely to abuse an elder?
    • family members
    • men tend to commit most acts of abuse
  157. What does Long Term Care (LTC) mean?
    Any set of services provided to people who need sustained help with ADLs and IADLs.
  158. What is the Long Term Care Ombudsman?
  159. What is meant by the term “Triple Jeopardy”?
    Term used to describe female ethnic-minoritiy elderly because they often face discrimination in three ways-being a woman, elderly, and member of an ethnic minority group, which puts them at higher risk for poverty than other older adults.
  160. What are advanced directives?
    • Older American Act (OOA) of 1965
    • -A comprehensive piece of legislation that seeks to improve the well-being of older adults.

    • Administration on Aging (AoA)
    • -A federal body that oversees the administration of the OAA through State Units of Aging (SUA), which are responsible for organizing states into smaller service areas based on populations of older adults.

    • Area Agencies on Aging (AAA)
    • -Entities that are in charge of each service area in each state. They administer funds to local service agencies in various communities in each sevice area.
  161. At what age are we eligible for Medicare?
Card Set
Foundation of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
Final-Study Guide