OB Chapter 3

  1. Values
    represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existence
  2. values properties
    • a judgmental element that carries an individual's ideas as to what is right, good or desirable
    • influencing attitudes or behaviour
    • they are formed when young
  3. 2 Frameworks to understand values
    • Milton Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values
    • Kent Hodgson's general moral principles
  4. Rokeach
    • 2 sets of 18 values
    • terminal values and instrumental values
  5. terminal values
    goals that individuals would like to achieve during lifetime
  6. instrumental values
    preferable ways of behaving
  7. Hodgson:
    uses the magnificent 7 to suggest universal values managers should use to make principled, appropriate, defensible decisions
  8. ethics
    the study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour and inform us whether actions are right or wrong
  9. The Magnificent 7 Principles of ethics (Hodgson)
    • 1. dignity of human life
    • 2. autonomy
    • 3. honesty
    • 4. loyalty
    • 5. fairness
    • 6. humanness
    • 7. the common good
  10. Assessing cultural values --> Geert Hofstede found:
    managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of natural culture
  11. Geert Hoftsede's 5 value dimensions of natural culture
    • 1. power distance
    • 2. individualism vs. collectivism
    • 3. masculinity vs. feminity
    • 4. uncertainty avoidance
    • 5. long term vs. short term orientation
  12. power distance
    extent a society accepts unequal power distribution
  13. individualism vs. collectivism
    • individualism - degree to which people prefer to act alone rather than as a whole group and stress individual rights
    • collectivism - expects group members to look out for each other
  14. masculinity vs. feminity
    degree a culture favours traditional masculine roles oppose to equality (feminity)
  15. uncertainty avoidance
    extent a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations / tries to avoid them
  16. Long term vs. short term orientation
    societies degree of a long-term devotion to traditional values
  17. Long-term society orientation
    emphasizes future, thrift, persistence
  18. Short-term society orientation
    emphasize past and present, respect for tradition, social obligations
  19. GLOBE framework (Global leadership and organizational behaviour effectiveness)
    • 1. assertiveness
    • 2. future orientation
    • 3. gender differentiation
    • 4. uncertainty avoidance
    • 5. power distance
    • 6. individualism / collectivism
    • 7. in-group collectivism
    • 8. performance orientation
    • 9. humane orientation
  20. Two major factors that lead to a potential class of values
    • generational differences
    • cultural differences
  21. The elders
    • over age 60
    • core values: order, authority, discipline and the Golden Rule
  22. Baby Boomers
    • mid 1940s-1960s
    • stereotypes: rejection of authority, skepticism regarding the motives of big businesses and government, convern for the environment, desire equality
  23. Generation X
    • (mid 1960s - early 1980s)
    • value flexibility, life options and achievement of job satisfaction
  24. The ne(x)t generation
    • 1977-1997
    • have high expectations and seek meaning
  25. Cultural Differences influencing canadian workplace
    • francophone and anglophone values
    • aboriginal values
    • asian values
  26. aboriginal values
    traditionalist, reluctant to compete, time orientation difference, consensus decision making
  27. asian values
    • very diverse, exhibit power distance, greater collectivism
    • guanxi (personal connections with the appropriate authorities or individuals)
  28. Attitudes are
    • positive or negative feelings about objects, people or events
    • responses to situations
    • effect job behaviour
  29. 3 important job related attitudes
    • 1. job satisfaction
    • 2. organizational commitment
    • 3. employee engagement
  30. Job satisfaction is
    general attitude toward job
  31. Factors that effect job satisfaction
    work itself, pay, advancement opportunities, supervision, co-workers
  32. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)
    discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements, but that promotes effective functioning of an organization
  33. Responses to job disattisfaction
    • exit - actively attempting to leave organization
    • voice - actively/constructively attempting to improve conditions, suggesting improvements, discussing issues, union activity
    • loyalty - passively / optimistically waiting for conditions to improve
    • neglect - passively allowing conditions to worse, (lateness, reduced effort, increased error)
  34. Organizational commitment
    a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goal, and wishes to maintain membership
  35. John Meyer's three commitment types:
    • 1. affective commitment - an individual''s relationship to the organization (emotional attachment, identification with, and involvement in the org)
    • 2. normative commitment - obligation one feels to staying with the org. (morals and ethics)
    • 3. continuance commitment - ones calculation to stay with org. based on the perceived costs of leaving
  36. affective commitment is tied to
    positive work behaviours such as performance, attendance, and citizenship.
  37. normative commitment is tied to
    positive work behaviours less than affective
  38. continuance commitment is tied to
    negative work behaviours
  39. Reasons why employees commit themselves
    • proud of company's operations, accomplishments, and legacy
    • know expectations, how performance is measured, and why it matters
    • in control of own destinies, savour high-risk, high performance environment
    • recognized mostly for the quality of their individual performance
    • have fun and enjoy the supportive and highly interactive environment
  40. Employee Engagement
    an individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he/she does
  41. Major workforce diversity categories
    • gender
    • national origin
    • age
    • disability
    • domestic partners
    • religion
  42. cultural intelligence
    ability to understand someone's unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures in the same way as world ppl from that person's culture (CQ)
  43. most managers fall into these cultural intelligence profiles:
    • provincial - work best with similar background
    • analyst - analyze foreign cultures to figure out how to interact
    • natural - use intuition rather than systematic study to understand cultures
    • ambassador- communicate convincingly that they fit in
    • mimic- control actions and behaviours to match others
    • chameleon - high levels of all the 3 CQ components
  44. 3 levels of CQ (Cultural Intelligence)
    • 1. physical
    • 2. cognitive
    • 3. emotional/motivational
Card Set
OB Chapter 3
OB Chapter 3