
What does Energy Equal?
E = cp = m[rest]c^2

1 eV equals how many Joules?
1.6 x 10^{19} Joules

Mass of the electron in eV?
.511 MeV

Mass of the proton in eV?
938 MeV, about 1 GeV

What is Avogadro's number?
N_{a} = 6 x 10^{23}

How much is one "u" atomic mass unit, it eV?
931 MeV/c^{2}

What does rest mass equal?
E/c^{2}

What is the charge of the electron in Coulombs?
1.6 x 10^{19} C

How do you calculate the binding Energy?
Coulombs force law

What is momentum in terms of velocity?
p = γ_{u}m_{r}u

What is energy in terms of velocity?
p = γ_{u}m_{r}c^{2}

E' Lorentz transformation, with respect to v, velocity of observer is:
E' = γ_{v}E  γ_{v}Β_{v}cp

cp' Lorentz transformation, with respect to v, velocity of observer is:
cp' =  γ_{v}Β_{v}E + γ_{v}cp

What is the mass of a neutron?
approximately the mass of a proton, 1 GeV

What is typical spacing between a nucleus and an election?
1 Angstrom

What is the relationship between energy, mass and momentum?
E^{2}  (cp)^{2} = (m_{r}c^{2})^{2}

What is beta^{2} in terms of gamma?
1  1/γ^{2}

What is the energy of a photon?
E = cp = hυ = hc/λ

What is the power radiated by a moving charged particle? (Thanks Maxwell)
P = (2/3) (e^{2}/c^{2}) (a^{2})

What is the value of h, planks constant in terms of "hc"
1240 eV Nm

What is the energy in eV at a given wavelength λ of light?
E = hυ = hf = hc(f/c) = hc(1/λ)

What is Intensity in terms of Energy per quanta?
I = hυ * number of photons per time per area

How do you count the number of photons?
Intensity times area times time divided by hυ

What is the photoelectric effect?
Shining uv light on one parallel plate causes current. Increase voltage to other side of plate and determine the stoping voltage.

How do you measure KE in the photoelectric effect?
K = eV_{stopping}

What is the Compton wavelength?
hc/m_{e}c^{2}

What is change in wavelength due to Compton effect?
λ_{c}(1cos x)

How are Xrays produced?
accelerate electron into metal, it shoots off Xrays

