PSYC 120 Ch 4,5,6

  1. Genes
    Basic physical unit of heredity, interact with environment, ie natural selection
  2. Genotype vs phenotype
    • Genotype- genetic package containing instructions for organism
    • Phenotype- actual characteristics of an organism, height, color, intelligence
  3. Behavior genetics
    studies relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
  4. Difference between identical and fraternal twins
    • Identical - same genes - split from same egg, monozygotic
    • Fraternal - dizygotic - two eggs
  5. Main findings from adoption studies
    • -allows us to examine impact of genes on behavior
    • -identical twins much more similar on personality and behavioral traits
  6. Piaget's four stages
    • Sensorimotor
    • Preoperational
    • Concrete operational
    • Formal operations
  7. Sensorimotor
    • birth to almost 2
    • process world through sensation and actions
    • Milestones: object permanance (out of sight, out of mind)
  8. Preoperational
    • 2ish to 6 or 7ish
    • inability to perform mental operations
    • lots of symbols
    • fail tasks of conservation ie, cut one piece into two
    • are egocentric- unable to place themselves in position of other (nodding on phone)
    • Theory of mind: others have different thoughts, knowledge, feeling; emerges 3 or 4ish
    • Autistic fail to develop theory of mind.
  9. Concrete operational
    • -thinking
    • 6-7to 11 ish
    • grasp conservation and can perform mental operations
    • take things literally, black and white thinkers
    • -anchored in real world concepts - $500 is how many Pokemon cards
    • -can't comprehend hypothetical or abstract concepts
  10. Formal operations
    • 11ish is when Piaget thought, actually a bit later
    • have developed abstract thinking
    • -can see areas of grey between black and white issues
  11. Erikson's stages of development
    • Infant
    • Toddler
    • Preschooler
    • School-Age Child
    • Adolescent
    • Young Adult
    • Middle-Age Adult
    • Older Adult
  12. Adjust schemas through?
    • Assimilation- incorporating new info
    • Accommodation- adjusting schema to fit new info
  13. stability of temperament
    suggests genetic predisposition
  14. Natural selection basics
    lifeforms with particular traits are more likely to survive and reproduce, thus passing on the traits that enable them to survive
  15. Twin & adoption studies
    Twin & adoption studies allow us to examine impact of genes on behavior
  16. Adaptive behaviors
    ANY behavior that somehow increases the odds of survival and/or reproduction
  17. Evolutionary psychology
    -benefits and limitations of field
    -predictions regarding human behaviors
    • How natural selection shapes our traits and behavior tendencies.
    • Limitations: works backwards,
    • evolutionary perspective gives little emphasis to social influences
    • -benefits: testable predictions based on evolutionary principles, aka BULLSHIT
  18. Stages of prenatal development
    zygotal, embryonic, fetal
  19. Zygotal stage of pregnancy
    single cell embryo and placenta
  20. Embryonic
    • 2-8 weeks
    • -formation of all major organ systems
  21. Fetus
    • 9 weeks to birth
    • -finishing systems to be functional outside womb
  22. genome
    genetic package containing instructions for organism
  23. phenotype
    • actual characteristics of an organism,
    • ie height, weight, color, intelligence
  24. Parts of eye
    • Cornea
    • Pupil
    • Iris
    • lens
    • retina
    • fovea
    • blind spot
Card Set
PSYC 120 Ch 4,5,6
psyc 120