Test 2

  1. Variable
    • is an even or behavior that can assume at least two values.
    • Exp. temperature, height, weight, noise level,
  2. Nuisance Variables
    • Unwanted variables
    • Usually characteristic of the participants
    • Aspects of the experimental situation
    • Can cause the variability of scores with in groups
  3. When the nuisance variable increases.....
    • spread of scores
    • Makes more high and more low scores
    • Causes the bell curve to flatten
    • Does not move the mean of the scores
  4. Example of Nuisance Variable
    • Reading with Young and Old people
    • Cause more A's and more F's
  5. Nuisance Variable makes it difficult to see.....
    • the effects of the IV
    • It makes it hard to see what influence the IV had on the DV.
  6. Randomnization
    Ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment.
  7. Physiological IV
    • When the participants in an experiment are subjected to conditions that alter or change their normal biological state.
    • Exp. Rats and alcohol
  8. Experience
    • When the effects of amount or type of previous training or learning are the central focus of the research.
    • Exp. when the participants were tested on memory
  9. Stimulus or Environmental Variables
    • When researchers are manipulating some aspect of the environment.
    • Exp. the study with the heels and bare foot. The IV's were heels or barefoot
  10. Extraneous Variables
    • ate those factors that can gave an unintended influence on the results of our experiment.
    • They influence the difference between groups
  11. Types of Independent Variables
    • Physiological
    • Experience
    • Stimulus
    • Participant
  12. Confounded
    When the results of the study can either be the cause of the IV or the EV.
  13. Dependent Variables
    the results of the experiment.
  14. Correctness
    the DV will measure the amount of correct answers received.
  15. Rate or Frequency
    The rate of responding determines how rapidly responses are made during a specified time period

    The frequency does not focus on how rapid the response is, it focuses on the over all amount of responses in a period of time.
  16. Degree or Amount
    • record the DV in terms of degree.
    • Exp. the degree or amount of happiness people were with their satisfaction of life
  17. Latency and Duration
    In many situations, such as studies of learning and memory, how quickly participants make a response (latency) or how long the response lasts (duration) are of particular interest.
  18. Valid
    when the DV measures what the experimental hypothesis says it should measure.
  19. Reliable
    • Producing consistent measurements.
    • Exp. The scores on an intelligence test are used as the DV,
  20. Nuisance Variables
    are either characteristics of the participants or unintended influences of the experimental situation that make the effects of the more difficult to see or determine.
  21. Extraneous Variables
    can have and unintended influence on the results of an experiment by changing the difference between the groups. when an extraneous variable is present, the experiment is confounded.
  22. Dependent Variables
    changes as a function of the changes in the IV.
  23. A good DV is.....
    Valid and Reliable
  24. A DV can be recorded in terms of
    • Correctness
    • Rate or Frequency
    • Degree or Amount
    • Latency or Duration
  25. Nuisance Variables
    are variables that increase the variability of scores within all groups. The presence of the nuisance variables make the results of an experiment less clear.
  26. An event or behavior that can assume at leas two values is a....?
  27. Change in normal biological state
    Physiological IV
  28. Manipulation of environment
  29. Can damage the experiment and its results
    extraneous variable
  30. Age
    Participant bariable
  31. Changes as a function of changes in IV
  32. Amount of previous learning
    Experience IV
  33. Your research involves determining the effects of persuasion on the strength of attitudes.
  34. A good DV has two primary qualities and they are
    valid and reliable
  35. What are the five basic control techniques
    • Randomization
    • Elimination
    • Constancy
    • Balancing
    • Counterbalancing
  36. The goals of the Five Basic Control Techniques
    • (a) Produce groups that are equivalent prior to the introduction of the IV, thereby eliminating extraneous variables.
    • (b) reduce the effects of nuisance variables as much as possible.
  37. Elimination
    • Choosing to remove or eliminate the unwanted variable.
    • Exp. the experiment with the photo's of individuals of the top of their fore head to the base of their chin, eliminating their body type and clothing.
  38. Constancy
    • has become a standard control technique for many researchers.
    • Exp. the experiment taking place in the same room, same temperature, same lighting and same day.
  39. Balancing
    A control procedure that achieves group equality by distributing extraneous variables equally to all groups.
  40. Counterbalancing
    • A procedure for controlling order effects
    • Exp. The cola challenge the order in which the cola was given.
  41. Within-subject Counterbalancing
    • presents different treatment sequences to the same participant.
    • Exp. Cola Challenge one participant taste the cola in this sequence ABBA
  42. Within-group counterbalancing
    • presentation of different treatment sequences to different participants.
    • Exp. Cola Challenge the group is randomly assigned into groups, group 1 taste AB group 2 taste BA.
  43. Complete counter-balancing
    All possible treatment sequences are presented.
  44. Incomplete Counter-Balancing
    Only a portion of all possible sequences are presented.
  45. Sequence or Order Effects
  46. Complete removal of the extraneous Variable
  47. Extraneous variable is reduced to a single value
  48. Most widely used control procedure
  49. Used to control for order effects
  50. Extraneous variable is distributed equally to all group
  51. Balancing is a logical extension of
  52. What occurs when the response to one treatment depends on which treatment preceded it?
    Differential Carryover
  53. When considering a group of participants what should you think of?
    Precedent, Availability, Nature of the problem.
  54. Precedent
    An established pattern
  55. Availability
    Exp. College students and white rats
  56. Power
    Is the likelihood that the statistical test will be significant. Generally speaking, the greater the number of participant the higher the power of the statistical test.
  57. Automated equipment can be used for?
    Independent Variable
  58. Recording can be used for?
    Dependent Variable
  59. Group homogeneity is best associated with?
    Testing a smaller number of participants
  60. Group heterogeneity is best associated with?
    Testing more participants
  61. One of the best guidelines for the number of participants to be used in a successful research project is?
    Past research
  62. You have an ethical problem causing traumatic events to occur to people, You have a problem with?
    IV presentation
  63. Rosenthal Effect
    • When the experimenter influences the outcome of an experiment
    • Exp. The "gifted" children and the "smart" rats
  64. Single-blind experiment
    keeps the experimenter in the dark regarding which participants receive which treatments.
  65. Demand Characteristics
    When participants us cues to determine what the experimenter's hypothesis is and how they are supposed to act.
  66. Good Participant Effect
    When the participant acts in the way they think the experimenter wants them to act
  67. Yea-sayer
    participants that always agree
  68. Nay-sayer
    participants that never agree
  69. Response Set
    • The result when an experimental context or testing situation influences the participants' responses.
    • The experimenter apparel and the setting of the testing sight
  70. Double-blind Experiments
    Experimenter and the participants are unaware of which treatment is being administered to which participants.
  71. Psychological Experimenter Effects
    Hostility and Anxiety
  72. Experimenter Expectancies
    Rosenthal Effect
  73. Physiological Experimenter Effects
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Race
  74. Control for demand characteristics and experimenter expectancies.
    double-blind experiment
  75. Control for experimenter expantancies
    single-blind experiement
  76. An experiment in which the researcher doesn't know which treatment the participant are receiving
    is a blind experiment
  77. Demand characteristics refer to?
    cues that tell the participant how to act
  78. Cross-cultural Psychology
    A branch of psychology whose goal is to determine the universality of research results.
  79. Culture
    Lasting values, attitudes, and behaviors that are shared by a group and transmitted to subsequent generations.
  80. Etic
    A finding that is found across cultures.
  81. Emic
    Are findings that are linked to a specific culture.
  82. Ethoncentric
    when experimenters view other cultures of their own.
  83. Cultural response set
    the tendency for a specific culture to respond in a certain way
  84. The goal of cross-cultural psychology is best described as?
    determining whether psychological findings are universal
  85. A finding linked to a specific culture best describes?
    an emic
  86. The tendency of a culture to behave in a certain way best describes?
    a culture response set
  87. Internal validity
    Is a question of whether your independent actually created any change that you can observe in your dependent variable.
  88. History
    • refers to events that occur between the DV measurements in a repeated-measures designs.
    • Exp. Patriotic experiment in progress then 9/11 happens
  89. Maturation
    Exp. The person grows up, the person gets bored, the person gets sleepy.
  90. Testing
    Taking a test multiple times will lead to different outcomes
  91. Reactive Measures
    • When a participant changes their answer in the way they want.
    • Eep. Experiment on attitudes: a paricipant may give answers in favor to women if thier experimenter is a woman.
  92. Nonreactive Measures
    using measures that do not alter the participant's response by virtue of measuring it.
  93. Instrumentation Decay
    When equipment in the experiment malfunction or break.
  94. Statistical Regression
    • When an experimenter has extreme scores, it will be hard to maintain those extreme scores.
    • Exp. A 7'0 Basketball player has a child, their child will more then likely be shorter then 7'0 and If a 6'4 jockey has a child, their child will more then likely be short but they will be taller then 6'4.
  95. Selection
    Choosing in a way that participants are not equal before the experiment.
  96. Mortality
    a participant dying, leaving the experiment, being removed from the experiment
  97. Interations with Selections
    having systematic differences between or among selected treatment groups based on maturation, histoy or instumentation.
  98. Diffusion or Imitation of Treatment
    Exp. Child Abduction Experiment: The children coming back into the room and telling their friend what happened.
Card Set
Test 2
Key words in Chp. 6-8