AP english language

  1. Close reading
    • Analysis of a text.
    • You start with small details, and as you think about them, you discover how they affect the text's larger meaning.
  2. Colloquial/ism
    An informal or conversational use of language.
  3. Style
    The distinctive quality of speech or writing created by the selection and arrangement of words and figures of speech.
  4. Tone
    • The speakers attitude toward the audience or subject.
    • How the writing sounds.
  5. Diction
    • Word Choice.
    • Examples: archaic, positive, negative, threatening
  6. Syntax
    • The arrangement of words.
    • sentences can be short and chopy or long and flowing.
  7. Trope
    Artful diction; the use of language in a nonliteral way; also called a figure of speech.
  8. Metaphor
    • A figure of speech or trope through which one thing is spoken of as though it were something else, thus making an implicit comparison.
    • The profesor planted new ideas in their fertial young minds.
  9. Simile
    • A figure of speech that uses "like" or "as" to compare two things.
    • Loud as thunder.
  10. Personification
    Assigning lifelike characteristics to inanimate object.
  11. Hyperbole
    Exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis.
  12. Scheme
    A pattern of words or sentence construction used for rhetorical effect.
  13. Parallelism
    The repetition of similar grammatical or syntactial patterns.
  14. Juxtaposition
    Placement of two thing side by side for emphasis.
  15. Antithesis
    • Parallel structure that juxtaposes contrasting ideas.
    • (W)e shall support any friend, oppose any foe.
  16. Figure of Speech
    An expression that strives for literary effect rather than conveying a literal meaning.
  17. Periodic Sentence
    A sentence that builds toward the ends with the main clause.
  18. Cumulative Sentence
    An independent clause followed by subordinate clauses or phrases that supply additional detail.
  19. Annotation
    Explanatory or critical notes added to a text.
  20. Thesis Statement
    A statement of the central idea in a work, may be explicit or implicit.
  21. Topic Sentence
    A sentence, most often appearing at the beginning of a paragraph, that announces the paragraph's idea and often unites it with the work's thesis.
  22. Imagery
    Vivid use of language that evokes a reader's senses (sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing).
  23. Oxymoron
    • A figure of speech that combines two contradictory terms.
    • This peaceful revolution.
  24. Dialectal journal
    • A double-coloumn journal in which one writes a quotation in one column and reflection on that quotation in the other column.
    • Taking notes then making notes.
  25. Zeugma
    A construction in which one word (usually a verb) modifies or governs - often in different, sometimes incongruent ways - two or more words in a sentence.
  26. Graphic Organizer
    • A way to organize your thoughts about a specific text is to use a graphic organizer.
    • Examples: time lines, flow charts, venn diagrams, spider maps.
  27. Archaic Diction
    • The use of words common to an earlier time period; antiquated language.
    • Beliefs for which our forebears fought.
  28. Complex Sentence
    A sentence that includes one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
  29. Declarative Sentence
    A sentence that makes a statement.
  30. Anaphora
    • The repetition of words at the beginning of successive clauses.
    • Not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need - not as a call to battle, though embattled we are.
  31. Horatory
    Urging, or strongly encouraging.
  32. Imperativ Sentence
    A sentence that requests or commands.
  33. Antimetabole
    • The repetition of words in an inverted order to sharpen a contrast.
    • (A)sk not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country.
  34. Alliteration
    • Repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence.
    • (L)et us go forth to lead the land we love.
  35. Allusion
    • Brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or fictious, or to a work of art.
    • Let both sides unite to head in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah.
  36. Asyndeton
    • Omission of conjunctions between coordinat phrases, clauses, or words.
    • (W)e shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the sucess of liberty.
  37. Inversion
    • Inverted order of words in a sentence (variation of the subject-verb-object order).
    • United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do.
  38. Metonymy
    • Using a single feature to represent the whole.
    • In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course.
  39. Rhetorical Question
    • Figure of speech in the form of a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than for the purpose of getting an answer.
    • Will you join in that historic effort?
Card Set
AP english language
Close reading: the art and craft of analysis