1. what does the world ocean do for the environment?
    absorbs and stores sun energy. regulates temperature. realeases heat slower than land, and absorbs over 1/2 of solar energy reaching earth, so with this ocean the temperature changes way slower. without it, the temperatures would be too extreme for life.
  2. how are local temps regulated by oceans?
    currents with warm water cause the land they flow by to have a more moderate climate.
  3. surface currents
    • streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface of the ocean.
    • wind driven and result global wind patterns. don't readily mix, so flow long.
    • influence climate.
  4. deep currents
    • streamlike movements that flow very slowly along ocean floor.
    • form when cold, dense water from the poles sinks below less dense water and flows toward equator.
    • some, like antarctic bottom water, take several hundred years to get to the poles.
  5. fresh water
    • 3% of all water on earth.
    • 75% of it frozen in ice caps.
    • rest in lakes, rivers, wetlands, soil, rock below surface, atmosphere, etc.
  6. river system
    network of streams that drains an area of land.some are huge (mississippi river system covers 40% of US)
  7. tributaries
    smmaler streams or rivers that flow into larger ones.
  8. groundwater
    • water than sinks into ground and runs through land.
    • fulfills human need for fresh drinking water and supplies water for agricultural industrial use.
    • less than 1% of water on earth.
  9. aquiferers
    rock layer that stores and allows flow of groundwater.
  10. recharge zone
    surface of the land where water enters an aquifer.
  11. the highest energy level in the electromagnetic spectrum?
    gamma ray
  12. phytoplankton
    tiny plants that floats on water. base of the marine food chain. remove CO2 from the air.
  13. the 3 forms if UV energy?
    • UV A
    • UV B
    • UV C
  14. which forms of UV energy make it to earth?
    UV A and some UV B
  15. how does energy from the sun enter an ecosystem?
    during photosynthesis
  16. photosynthesis
    • when a plant uses the sun's energy to make sugar molecules.
    • plants, algea, some bacteria.
  17. carbohydrates
    energy-rich chemicals that organisms use to caryy out daily activities.
  18. phtotsythesis chemical formula
    6CO2+6H2O+solar energy->C6H12O6+6O2
  19. chlorophyll
    green chemical that helps plants trap sun energy to make coarbohhydrates.
  20. producer
    • organism that makes its own food.
    • (Autotrophs)
    • grass, fern, cactus, flowering plants, trees, algea, some bateria.
  21. consumers
    • organisms that get their energy from eating other organisms.
    • (heterotrophs)
    • mice, starfish, elephants, turtles, humans, ants, tigers.
  22. deep ocean ecosystems
    • worms, clams, crabs, mussels, barnacle, etc. live near hydrothermal vents in ocean floor. no sun energy. bacteria make their own food from hydrogen sulfide from hot water escaping from cracks in floor.
    • bacteria=producers tha support ecosystem.
  23. herbavore
    • eats only producers.
    • cow, sheep, deer, grasshopper.
  24. carnivore
    • eats only other consumers.
    • lion, hawk, snake, spider, shark, alligator, whale.
  25. omnivore
    • eat producers and consumers.
    • bear, pig, gorilla, rat, raccoon, human, cockroaches.
  26. decomposer
    • breaks down dead organsisms in an ecosystem and returns nutrients to soil, water, and air.
    • fungi, bacteria
  27. cellular respiration
    • process of breaking down food to yeild energy.
    • occurs inside cells.
    • absorb )2 and use it to get energy from food. exact oposite of photosynthesis.
  28. cellular respiration formula
  29. who uses cellular respiration?
    ALL organisms use it to get energy from the carbohydrates they produce.
  30. what do food chains/webs and trophic levels tell us?
    • how much energy is transferred
    • what organisms depend on each other.
  31. food chain
    squence where energy is transferred from one organism to the rest as they eat eachother.
  32. food web
    shows as many feeding relationships possible in ecosystem.
  33. trophic level
    • each step through which energy is transferred in a food chain.
    • some energy lost as heat or in cellular respiration.
    • 10% of organsisms energy is availible for next organism.
  34. why are ther fewer organisms as you go up levels?
    because energy is lost at each level.
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