OB Chapter 2

  1. What is perception?
    process where individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
  2. 3 factors in perception
    • perceiver
    • target
    • situation (context)
  3. Perceiver influences
    • Characteristics that influence interpretation such as:
    • attitudes
    • motives
    • interests
    • experience
    • expectations
  4. The target's characteristics
    • effect what is perceived
    • novelty
    • motion
    • sounds
    • size
    • background
    • proximity
  5. The situational factors could include
    • time
    • work setting
    • social setting
  6. Perceptual Errors
    • 1. attribution theory
    • 2. selective perception
    • 3. halo effect
    • 4. contrast effects
    • 5. projection
    • 6. stereotyping
  7. Attribution theory is
    observing typical behaviour, and attempting to understand if it is externally or internally caused
  8. internal causation of behaviour
    • individual is responsible for behaviour
    • it is under his/her control
  9. external causation of behaviour
    result from outside cuases
  10. 3 rules of Attribution Theory behaviour
    • distinctiveness
    • consensus
    • consistency
  11. Distinctiveness is
    • a behavioural rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations.
    • if behaviour is unusual of the individual, the observer links it to external causes
  12. Consensus
    considers if everyone faced wit ha similar situation responds in the same way
  13. Consistency
    • considers whether the individual has been acting the same over time
    • ex. students always late would mean internal cause
  14. Fundamental attribution error
    tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate external factors
  15. self-serving bias
    tendency to contribute ones own success to internal factors, and failure to external factors
  16. When distinctiveness is high
    It is seldom that the individual acts a particular way in other situations: external influence
  17. When distinctiveness is low
    It is frequently that the individual acts this particular way in a situation: internal causation
  18. When consensus is high
    frequently, other people act this way in similar situations: external causation
  19. When consensus is low
    Seldom, people act this particular way in similar situations: internal causation
  20. When consistency is high
    Very often this person has done this in the past: internal causation
  21. when consistency is low
    Seldom, did this person behave the same way in the past: external causation
  22. Selective Perception
    • interpretation of what they see based on interests, background, experience and attitudes
    • ex. someone that had cancer and survived is perceived differently at work now based on her background
  23. Halo Effect
    • drawing a general impression of an individual based on one characteristic.
    • unfair influence of one significant trait
  24. Contrast Effect
    • our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people we have recently encountered
    • ex. being interviewed after a mediocre applicant vs a strong one
  25. Projection
    giving our own characteristics to others
  26. stereotyping
    judging someone on the basis of perception of the group to which that person belongs
  27. heuristics
    judgment shortcuts in decision making
  28. prejudice
    unfounded dislike of a person/group based on their belonging to a stereotype
  29. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    • also called pygmalion effect
    • it is a concept proposing a person will behave in ways consistent with how he/she is perceived by others
    • ex. expectations of someone become reality
  30. personality is
    the stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how a person reacts and interacts
  31. three personality determinants
    • hereditary
    • environmental factors
    • situational factors
  32. Personality traits
    enduring characteristics that describe one's behaviour
  33. Two main ways of identifying and classifying traits:
    • Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI)
    • Big Five Personality Model
  34. Myers-Brigg Type Indicator
    a personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types
  35. MBTI indicator factors:
    • Extraverted or Introverted (E or I)
    • Sensing or Intuitive (S or N)
    • Thinking or Feeling (T or F)
    • Judging or Perceiving (J or P)
  36. Extraverted/Introverted
    • extraverted = outgoing, sociable, and assertive
    • introverted = quiet and shy
  37. Sensing/Intuitive
    • sensing = practical, routine, order, details
    • intuitive = rely on unconscious processes
  38. Thinking/Feeling
    • thinking = reason and logic use
    • feeling = rely on their personal values and emotions
  39. judging/perceiving
    • judging = want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured
    • perceiving = flexible and spontaneous
  40. The Big Five
    • 1. extraversion
    • 2. agreeableness
    • 3. conscientious
    • 4. emotional stability
    • 5. openness to experience
  41. Emotional Stability
    • less negative thinking and fewer negative emotions
    • lower stress levels
    • higher job/life satisfaction
  42. Extraversion
    • better interpersonal skills
    • greater social dominance
    • more expressive emotionally
    • higher performance in social jobs
    • enhanced leaderships & higher job/life satisfaction
  43. Openness to Experience
    • increased learning
    • more creative
    • more flexible
    • training performance
    • enhanced leadership
    • more adaptable to change
  44. Agreeableness
    • better liked, and comforting
    • higher performance in social jobs
    • less deviant behaviour
  45. Conscientiousness
    • greater effort and persistence
    • more drive / discipline
    • better organized / planning
    • higher performance
    • enhanced leadership
  46. Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB
    • core self-evaluation
    • narcism
    • propensity for risk taking
    • Machiavellians
    • self-monitoring
    • type a or b personality
  47. Core Self-evaluation
    • degree someone likes or dislikes him/her self
    • sees themselves as capable and effective
    • whether person feels in control or powerless in environment
  48. Machiavellian
    • one who is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means
    • high machs manipulate more, win, are persuaded less, and persuade others more
  49. high Mach's tend to do better:
    • when interacting face-to-face
    • in situations that allow room for improvising
    • when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low machs
  50. Narcissism
    tendency to be arrogant, huge sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, sense of entitlement
  51. Self-monitoring
    • trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust behaviour to external, situational factors
    • high self-monitors can present differently in public, contradicting their private selves
  52. risk taking
    persons willingness to take chances or risks
  53. Type A Personalities
    • personality with aggressive involvement in a chronic struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time.
    • always moving, talking, eating rapidly
    • impatient with rate of most events
    • strive to think/do more things at once
    • cannot cope with leisure time
    • obsessed with numbers and measuring success
  54. Type B personalities
    • easy going, relaxed, and patient
    • never suffer from a sense of time urgency
    • no need to display/discuss achievements
    • play for fun and relaxation rather than superiority
    • can relax without guilt
  55. Proactive Personality
    • a person who identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action and perseveres until meaningful change occurs
    • seen as leaders, agents of change
    • more like to achieve career success
    • choose and create things in their favour
  56. Emotions
    intense feelings that are directed at someone or something
  57. Moods
    feelings that are less than emotions and lack contextual stimulus
  58. 6 universal emotions
    anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise
  59. emotional labour
    employee expresses organizational desired emotion at work (usually when interacting with customers)
  60. emotional dissonance
    difference between the emotions people feel and emotions they show = emotional exhaustion
  61. surface acting
    hiding one's inner feelings to display what is expected
  62. deep acting
    trying to modify one's true inner feelings to match what is expected
  63. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a person's ability to
    • 1. be self aware
    • 2. detect emotions in others
    • 3. manage emotional cues and info
  64. employee deviance
    voluntary actions that violate established norms and threaten the organization, its members, or both
  65. deviant actions categories:
    • production (leaving early, working slowly)
    • property (stealing, sabotage)
    • political (gossip, blame co-workers)
    • personal aggression (sexual harassment, verbal abuse)
  66. Affective Events Theory
    theory that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work and that this emotional reaction influences their job performances / satisfaction
  67. work hassles:
    • colleagues not completing their share
    • conflicting things from different managers
    • time pressures
  68. work uplifts:
    • meeting goals
    • support from a colleague
    • receiving recognition for an accomplishment
  69. The Case for EI
    • intuitive appeal
    • EI predicts criteria that matter
    • EI is biologically based
  70. The Case Against EI
    • EI is too vague
    • EI cannot be measured
    • Its validity is suspect
  71. Tests of AET suggest:
    • 1. emotional episode is a series of emotional experiences precipitated by a single event
    • 2. job satisfaction is influenced by emotions at any given time along with the history of emotions around the event
    • 3. moods/emotions fluctuate = fluctuation of performance
    • 4. emotion-driven behaviours are short in duration and high in variability
    • 5. emotions are usually incompatible with job required emotions, this can have a negative influence on job performance
Card Set
OB Chapter 2
OB Chapter 2