1. Society
    People who share a culture and a territory
  2. Sociology/Applied Sociology
    The scientific study of social and human behavior.
  3. Latent functions
    Unintended beneficial consequences of people's actions.
  4. Manifest Functions
    The indended beneficial consequences of people's actions.
  5. Micro-Level Analysis
    An examination of small-scale patterns of society
  6. Macro-Level Analysis
    An examination of large-scale patterns of society.
  7. Population
    A target group to be studied
  8. Sample
    the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
  9. Control group
    the subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable.
  10. Reliability
    the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results.
  11. Validity
    the extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure.
  12. culture shock
    the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
  13. ethnocentrism
    the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors.
  14. cultural leveling
    the process by which cultures become similar to one another.
  15. cultural relativism
    not judging a culture buy trying to understand it on its own terms.
  16. material culture
    the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their clothing and jewelery.
  17. non-material culture
    a groups way of thinking and doing.
  18. gestures
    the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another
  19. more
    norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group.
  20. folkway
    norms that are not strictly enforced.
  21. counterculture
    a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture.
  22. subculture
    the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world.
  23. cultural diffusion
    the spread of cultural traits from one group to another.
  24. cultural lag
    Ogburns's term form human behavior lagging behind technological innovations.
  25. ideal culture
    a people's ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them
  26. pluralistic society
    a society made up of many different groups
  27. peer group
    a group of individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests.
  28. socialization
    the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group---the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values...etc..
  29. resocialization
    the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors.
  30. anticipation socialization
    the process of learning in advance a role or status one anticipates having.
  31. ascribed status
    a position an individual either inherits at birth or receives involutarily later in life
  32. achieved status
    positions that are earned, accomplished, or involve at least some effort or activity on the individual's part.
  33. master status
    a status that cuts across the other statuses that an individual occupies
  34. status inconsistency
    ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others
  35. mechanical solidarity
    Durkheim's term for the unity that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks.
  36. organic solidarity
    Durkheim's term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people depending on others to fulfill their jobs.
  37. gemeinschaft
    a type of society in which life is intimate: a community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sence of togetherness
  38. gesellschaft
    a type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest.
  39. social intergration
    the degree to which members of a group or a society are united by shared norms, values, behaviors, and other social bonds
  40. impression management
    people's efforts to control the impressions that others receive of them
  41. ethnomethodology
    the study of how people use background assumptions to make sense out of life.
  42. sanction
    eithere approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them.
  43. positivism
    the application of the scientific method to the social world.
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