1. Distinguish between Intramembranous and Endochondral ossification
    Intramembranous: produces the flat bones of the skull and most of the clavicle
  2. Define Osteon and identify its component parts.
    • The fundamental functional unit of much compact bone.
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  3. Scoliosis
    Bending of the spine (laterally)
  4. Lordosis
    Bending of the spine (sway back)
  5. Kyphosis
    Bending of the spine (hunch back)
  6. Achondro plastic dwarf
    A condition in which the long bones of the limbs stop growing in childhood, while the growth of other bones is unaffected.
  7. Thyroid dwarf (Cretin)
    Short stature caused by hypothyroidism during childhood and insufficient thyroid hormone production.
  8. Pituitary dwarf(Midgit)
    Stunted growth due to a deficiency of the primary growth hormone; characterized clinically by growth failure in early life.
  9. Wolff’s law of bone
    States that the architecture of a bone is determined by the mechanical stresses placed upon it.
  10. Ossification
    The formation of bone
  11. Yellow bone marrow
    In adults, red marrow that no longer produces red blood cells
  12. Red bone marrow
    Marrow that produces red blood cells
  13. Hemopoietic
    Production of red blood cells.
  14. Osteoporosis
    Severe loss of bone density
  15. Osteogenesis imperfect
    A genetic condition which causes bone to be brittle and prone to fracture.
  16. Rickets
    Softness of the bones in children.
  17. Osteoclasts
    Bone-dissolving cells found on the bone surface.
  18. Osteoblasts
    bone forming cells.
  19. Osteogenic cells
    Stem cells that develop from embryonic mesenchymal cells which make most bone types. Found in the endosteum, inner layer of the periosteum, and in the central canals. Become osteoblasts.
  20. Diploe
    The spongy layer in the cranium.
  21. Epiphyseal line
    In adults, line where the growing epiphyseal plate was.
  22. Perforating fibers
    Collagen fibers that penetrate into the bone matrix
  23. Name and identify as many component parts of a long bone as can seen by the unaided eye.
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  24. Name and describe four shape groups of bones with examples of each?
    Long bones: longer than wide - humerus, radius and ulna, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, tibia and fibula, metatarsals and phalanges.

    Short bones: nearly equal in length and width - carpals and tarsals.

    Flat bones: enclose and protect soft organs and provide broad surfaces for muscle attachment - most cranial bones, ribs, sternum, scapula, and hip bones.

    Irregular bones: elaborate shapes that don't fit into any of the preceding caregories - vertebrae and some skull bones.
  25. List six functions of the skeleton?
    Support, Protection, Movement, Electrolyte balance, Acid-base balance, and Blood formation.
  26. Components of the skeletal system?
    Bones, cartilages, and ligaments.
  27. Why is “dynamic tissue” a good description for the skeleton?
    Because it is always changing.
Card Set
Chapter 7