Roman World and Western Europe Develops Vocabulary

  1. What is polytheism?
    the belief in many Gods
  2. What is Animism?
    • belief that spirts dwelled in all objects of the natural world (anything living- animals, plants, etc)
    • very common in many different cultures
  3. What are Lares?
    • each family had their own God to protect them
    • these gods were called Lares
  4. What are Rabbis?
    scholars/preists that taught the jewish religion
  5. Messiah
    • a spiritual leader who, according to prophecy, would restore the Ancient Kingdom of David
    • second comming of God
    • most Jews were upset about this claim
  6. Gentiles
    • non-jews
    • anyone who did not practice the jewish faith
  7. Edict of Milan
    Constantine's (the leader of Rome) declaration making Christianity legal within the Roman Empire
  8. Jesus
    • son of God
    • prophet
    • originator of Christianity
    • some people claimed he was the messiah
    • jewish carpenter
    • performer of miracles
  9. Ressurection
    • theoretically, Jesus' ruse into the holy spirit
    • claim that after you die you will move on to Heaven
  10. Disciples
    followers of Jesus who also taught his ideas
  11. Missionaries
    people that go to different places and teach their faith to people
  12. Theology
    the study of any religion
  13. Heresy
    • any kind of anti-christian behavior
    • eventually becomes illegal
  14. Holy Spirit
    give and take, or connection between God and humanity
  15. Holy Trinity
    the idea that God and humans can be perfect with go and eventually go to heaven if they are good
  16. St. Augustine
    said that the soul and connection with God was more important than the body and its connection with the government
  17. Nobles
    previous warriors who received land from Kings, or past chiefs
  18. Freemen
    • class under kings and nobles
    • could own land and had some political rights
  19. Benedictine Rule
    • a set of rules created by St. Benedict to govern monastic life
    • Became a fundamental pattern for Catholic monastaries
  20. Gregory the Great
    • one of the most effective advocates of both papal authority and expansion of the church
    • fully supported the monastic missionary movement
    • absorbed Pagans customs
  21. Latin Christendom
    Roman and Christian traditions interacted with German culture to produce this
  22. Donation of Pepin
    • Pepin's donation of the lands he conquered to the pope
    • created the Papal states
  23. Charlemagne
    • successor and ruler of the Carolingian dynasty
    • divided kingdoms into counties
  24. Carolingian Renaissance
    The revival or rebirth of learning
  25. Knights
    • mounted warriors that provided protection
    • watched fiefs
  26. Fief
    the name for a piece of land given to a knight by a Lord
  27. Lord
    • the former noble
    • noble became called a lord after giving land to knights
  28. Vassal
    • former knight
    • knight became a vassal after being given land by the lord
  29. Feudalism
    • the whole practice of vassals runng fiefs and lords controlling land
    • social structure, leading up to King
  30. Manorial System
    • the primary economic system during the middle ages
    • nobles gave peasants the right to work on their estates or manors in return for a fixed payment (usually impossible to reach)
  31. Domain
    the one third of the manor that the lord kept for himself
  32. Serfs
    • peasants who weren't allowed to leave the land without the Lords permission
    • usually didnt have skills unlike other peasants
  33. William of Aquitine
    • one of the people calling for reforms in 900s.
    • founded the abby of clung which required the pope to control all monastaries
  34. Sacraments
    • the most important ceremonies of the church through wich Christians believed they could reach salvation
    • Baptism, Holy Eurcharist, Confirmation, Penance, The Taking of Holy Orders (becomming a preist or nun), Matrimony, and Extreme Unction (Annointing of the sick)
  35. Norman Conquest
    • when duke william of normandy invaded England, claiming the English Throne
    • extended the process of establishing royal power
  36. Domesday Book
    • the book that held all of the data that william collected from the townspeople with a survey
    • kept track of everything- taxes, debts, ownership, etc
  37. Common Law
    • foundation to all english law; the laws common to all England
    • --->ex:If you steal, you have to pay back the person
    • basis of our constitution
  38. Magna Carta
    • the Great Charter
    • John sighned it and agreed to obtain the nobles consent before raising taxes
  39. Parliament
    a representative assembly that gradually evolved over the next several centuries into a two chamber body, the house of lords and the house of commons
  40. Parlement of Paris
    the supreme court for the entire realm and expanded its functions
  41. Estates General
    • a meeting between all of the different
    • the three classes each had one vote on different topics
    • --->topics mostly taxes
  42. College of Cardinals
    a body of bishops chosen for the purpose to choose future Popes
  43. Concordat of Worms
    • where the emperor agreed that the pope should invest the bishops of germany with their spiritual authority, but he retained the right ot grant them their symbols of earthly power and to insist that they perform their obligations to him as feudal vassals.
    • pretty much pope was in charge of your soul he was your spiritual leader, and king was in charge of your body, he was your earthly leader
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Roman World and Western Europe Develops Vocabulary