The process that our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent energies from our environment.
- the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
- -enables us to recognize meaningful objects and events
bottom up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works u[p to the brain's intergration of sensory info.
- information processing guided by higher level mental processes.
- Construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our experience of them
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint signal among background noise.
below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
- the activation, unconsciously, of certain associations. Memory of response.
- -much of our info processing occurs automatically off the map of our conscious mind.
- also called the noticeable difference.
- -minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time.
- Two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion, not a constant amount.
- two lights - differ by an 8 percent intensity
- two objects - differ in weight by 2 percent
- two tones - frequency by 0.3 percent
diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus.
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensations, the transforming of stimulus energies such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret.
lights visible to humans.
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light.
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness. Determined by waves amplitude.
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil. Controls the size of the pupil.
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
the light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rodds and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don't respond.
retinal receptors that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind spot" because no receptor cells are there.
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
brains ability to do many things at once.
Young-Helmholtz trichomatic (three color) theory.
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors, one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue, when combined can produce any color.
the theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision.
the sense or act of hearing.
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time.
- a tone's experienced highness or lowness
- -depends on frequency
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones; the hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
a coiled, bony fluid filled tube through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
the innermost part of the ear containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of the tone.
conduction hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the eardrum or tiny bones, diminishing the the ear's ability to conduct vibrations
sensorineural hearing loss
- also called nerve deafness
- -due to exposure to prolonged loud music, aging.
a device for converting sounds into electrical signals by simulating the auditory nerves through electrodes put into the cochlea.
the system for sensing position and movement of individual body parts.
- monitors your head and also your body's position and movement.
- -equilibrium of the ear
- -keeps you balanced
three-dimensional pretzel in your ear
- connect the canals with the cochlea
- -contains fluid that moves when your head rotates or tilts.
- -this movement stimulates receptors and sends messages to the cerebellum enabling body to maintain balance
gate control theory
- spinal chord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass by.
- -pain signals travel small nerve fibers
the principle that one sense may influence another
- an organized whole
- integrating pieces of information into meaningful wholes