retching that is elicited by stimulation of the sensitive tissues of the soft palate region
gag reflex is a protective mechanism of the body that serves to what?
clear the airway of obstruction
before gag reflex is initiated what two reactions occur
- cessation of respiration
- contraction of the muscles in the throat and abdomen
what are the two precipitating factors responsible for initiating the gag reflex?
- psychogenic stimuli (mind)
- tactile stimuli (touch)
what 4 things must the dental radiographer be aware of with a patient with a hypersensitive gag reflex?
- operator attitude
- pt and equipment prep
- exposure sequence
- film placement and technique
what qualities must the operators attitude have?
- patience, tolerance and understanding
- reassuring to patient
what is the exposure sequencing for a patient with a gag reflex?
- start in anterior
- expose maxillary molar films last
what is the film placement and techniques for patients with a gag reflex
- avoid sliding film along palate
- demonstrate film placement before placement
what must be done for extreme cases of gag reflex
what is a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of an individuals major life activities?
a person with a physical disability may have problems with ____, _____, or _____.
what must be done if the patient has a vision impairment?
communicate using clear verbal explanations
what must be done if the patient has a hearing impariement?
- use gestures
- written instructions
- face patient and speak clearly and slowly
what must be done if a patient has a mobility impairment?
- assist pt in transferring to dental chair
- ask caregiver to assist
- attempt procedures will pt is in wheelchair
what is a substantial impairment of mental or physical functioning that occurs before age 22 and is indefinite duration.
what are some examples of a developmental disability
- cerebral palsy
- mental retardation
what are 3 examples of patients with specific dental needs?
what two things must come into play when prescribing radiographs to a pediatric patient?
the exposure factors must be _____ when taking radiographs on a child
Management of children require that the dental radiographer be ____, ___, and ____.
what are 4 examples of helpful hints when managing a pediatric patient?
- show and tell
- reassure the patient
- request assistance
- postpone the examination
what does the endodontic procedure usually involve?
removal of the dental pulp
what can be used to aid positioning of film during a root canal procedure?
endoray film holder
what are the four reason that an edentulous patient requires radiographs?
- root tips, impacted teeth and lesions
- objects embedded in bone
- establish the position of normal anatomic landmarks
- observe the quantity and quality of the bone
what is the most common film used for an edentulous patient?
what must be placed on either side of the bite block when taking PAs of an endentulous patient?
the film should be positioned so that approximately __/__ of it extends beyond the edentulous ridge
if a periapical exam is done how many PAs are taken
if an occlusal and periapical exam are done how many films are taken?