Respiratory system

  1. alveol/o
    alveolus (air sac)
  2. bronch/o, bronchi/o
    bronchus (airway)
  3. bronchiol/o
    bronchiole (little airway)
  4. capn/o, carb/o
    carbon dioxide
  5. laryng/o
    larynx (voice box)
  6. lob/o
    lobe (a portion)
  7. nas/o, rhin/o
  8. or/o
  9. ox/o
  10. palat/o
  11. pharyng/o
    pharynx (throat)
  12. phren/o
    diaphragm (also mind)
  13. pleur/o
    pleura (lining of lungs)
  14. pneum/o, pneumon/o
    air or lung
  15. pulmon/o
  16. sinus/o
    sinus (cavity)
  17. spir/o, -pnea (suffix)
  18. thorac/o, pector/o, steth/o
  19. tonsill/o
  20. trache/o
    trachea (windpipe)
  21. uvul/o
  22. ABG
    arterial blood gas
  23. AP
  24. Bx
  25. COPD
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  26. CPAP
    continuous positive airway pressure
  27. CPR
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  28. CT
    computed tomography
  29. CXR
    chest x-ray
  30. HIV
    human immunodeficiency virus
  31. LTB
  32. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  33. PA
  34. PaCO2
    partial pressure of carbon dioxide
  35. Pa02
    partial pressure of oxygen
  36. PE
    pulmonary embolism
  37. PEFR
    peak expiratory flow rate
  38. PF
    peak flow
  39. PFT
    pulmonary function testing
  40. pH
    potential of hydrogen
  41. PSG
  42. T&A
    tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
  43. TB
  44. TV or Vt
    tidal volume
  45. URI
    upper respiratory infection
  46. VC
    vital capacity
  47. V/Q
    ventilation-perfusion (scan)
  48. nose
    structure that arms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract; also houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
  49. sinuses
    air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
  50. palate
    roof of the mouth; partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
  51. hard palate
    bony anterior (front) portion of the palate
  52. soft palate
    muscular posterior (back) portion of the palate
  53. pharynx
    throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and for air to the larynx
  54. nasopharynx
    part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
  55. oropharynx
    central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
  56. laryngopharynx
    lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharyngeal opening into the larynx and esophagus
  57. tonsils
    oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; also called palatine tonsils
  58. adenoid
    lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose; also called pharyngeal tonsil
  59. uvula
    small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate; named for its grape-like shape
  60. larynx
    voice box; passageway for air moving from the pharynx to the trachea; contains the vocal cords
  61. glottis
    opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
  62. epiglottis
    a lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
  63. trachea
    windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into the right and left bronchi
  64. bronchial tree
    branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
  65. right bronchus and left bronchus
    two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
  66. bronchioles
    progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
  67. alveoli
    thin-walled, microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
  68. lungs
    two spongy organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage; responsible for respiration
  69. lobes
    subdivisions of the lung, with two on the left and three on the right
  70. pleura
    membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
  71. pleural cavity
    potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
  72. diaphragm
    muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and that moves upward and downward to aid in respiration
  73. mediastinum
    partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (containing the right and left lungs) and that encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
  74. mucous membranes
    thin sheets of tissue that line respiratory passages and secrete mucous, a viscud sticky fluid
  75. cilia
    hair like processes fromt he surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, to move mucous cell secretions upward
  76. parenchyma
    functional tissues of any organ, such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs, that perform respiration
  77. eupnea
    normal breathing
  78. bradypnea
    slow breathing
  79. tachypnea
    fast breathing
  80. hypopnea
    shallow breathing
  81. hyperpnea
    deep breathing
  82. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  83. apnea
    inability to breathe
  84. orthopnea
    ability to breathe only in an upright position
  85. cheyne-stokes respiration
    pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes, in rate to a max level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
  86. crackles/rales
    popping sounds heard on ausculation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli; occurs in disorders usch as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
  87. wheezes/ rhonchi
    high-pitched, musical sounds heard on ausculation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway; occurs in disorders usch as asthma or emphysema
  88. stridor
    high-pitched, crowing sound that occurs with an obstruction in the upper airway (trachea or larynx)
  89. caseous necrosis
    degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance
  90. cyanosis
    bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
  91. dysphonia
  92. epistaxis
  93. expectoration
    coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
  94. sputum
    material expelled from the lungs by coughing
  95. hemoptysis
    coughing up and spitting out blood that originates in the lungs
  96. hypercapnia/hypercarbia
    excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
  97. hyperventilation
    excessive movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypocapnia
  98. hypocapnia/hypocarbia
    deficient level of carbion dioxide in the blood
  99. hypoventilation
    deficient movement fo air into and out of the lungs, causing hypercapnia
  100. hypoxemia
    deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
  101. hypoxia
    deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
  102. obstructive lung disorder
    condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
  103. restrictive lung disorder
    condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
  104. pulmonary edema
    fluid filling the spaces around the alveoli and, eventually, flooding into the alveoli
  105. pulmonary infiltrate
    density on an x-ray image representing the consolidation of matter within the air spaces of the lungs, usually resulting from an inflammatory process
  106. rhinorrhea
    thin, watery discharge from the nose( runny nose)
  107. asthma
    panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane; characterized by paroxysmal attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
  108. atelectasis
    collapse fo lung tissue
  109. bronchiectasis
    abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
  110. bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi
  111. bronchogenic carcinoma
    lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi
  112. bronchospasm
    constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the periobronchial smooth muscle
  113. emphysema
    obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
  114. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a comvination of chronic bronchitis and emyphysema
  115. cystic fibrosis
    inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous mucous that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucous that obstructs the airways leads to infection, inflammation, and damage of lung tissue
  116. laryngitis
    inflammation of the larynx
  117. laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)
    inlfammation of the upper airways with swelling; creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distint seal bark cough
  118. laryngospasm
    spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction
  119. nasal polyposis
    presence of numerous polyps in the nose (a polyp is a tumor on a stalk)
  120. pharyngitis
    inflammation of the pharynx
  121. pleural effusion
    accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
  122. empyema/ pyothorax
    accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
  123. hemothorax
    blood in the pleural cavity
  124. pleuritis/ pleurisy
    inflammation of the pleura
  125. pneumoconiosis
    chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from the prolonged inhalation of fine dusts, such as coal, asbestos, or silicone
  126. pneumonia
    inflammation of the lung resulting from infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites or from aspiration of chemicals
  127. pneumocystis pneumonia
    pneumonia cuased by the pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection in those who are positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  128. pneumothorax
    air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung of chest wall
  129. pneumonitis
    inflammation of the lung, often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dusts
  130. pulmonary embolism (PE)
    occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
  131. pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
    disease caused by the presence of myobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs; characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)
  132. sinusitis
    inflammation of the sinuses
  133. sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation (10 secs or more) that occur during sleep, often resulting in snoring
  134. tonsillitis
    acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
  135. upper respiratory infection (URI)
    infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
  136. arterial blood gas (ABG)
    analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
  137. pH
    abbreviation for the potential of hydrogen; measurement of blood acidity or alkalinity
  138. pa02
    abbreviation for partial pressure of oxygen; measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood
  139. paC02
    abbreviation for partial pressure of carbon dioxide; measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
  140. endoscopy
    examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes
  141. bronchoscopy
    use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways
  142. nasopharyngoscopy
    use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx (throat) to diagnose structural abnormalities, such as obstructions, growths, and cancers
  143. examination methods
    techniques used during physical exam to objectively evaluate the respiratory system
  144. auscultation
    to listen; a physical exam method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, uch as ausculation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
  145. percussion
    a physical exam method of tapping the boyd to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity, such as the chest
  146. lung biopsy (Bx)
    removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathologic examination
  147. lung scan/ ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan
    a two-part nuclear (radionuclide) scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of ventilation (respiration) as the patient breathes radioactive material into the airways; comparison of the two scans indicates whether an abnormality exists in the airways or the pulmonary circulation
  148. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    nonionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions
  149. polysomnography (PSG)
    recording of various aspects of sleep for diagnosis of sleep disorders
  150. pulmonary function testing (PET)
    direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capacities
  151. spirometry
    direct measurement of lung volume and capacity
  152. tidal volume (TV)
    amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
  153. vital capacity (VC)
    amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
  154. peak flow (PF)/ peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
    measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
  155. pulse oximetry
    noninvasive method of estimating the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood using and oximeter with a specialized probe attached to the skin at a site fo arterial pulsation, commonly the finger; used to monitor hypoxemia
  156. radiology
    x-ray imaging
  157. chest x-ray (CXR)
    x-ray imaging of the chest to visualize the lungs; directional terms identify the path of the x-ray beam to produce the radiograph
  158. computed tomography CT
    CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung; CT of the head is used to visualize the structures of the nose and sinuses
  159. pulmonary angiography
    x-ray imaging of the blood vessels of the lungs after the injection of the contrast material
  160. adenoidectomy
    excision of the adenoids
  161. lobectomy
    removal of a lobe of a lung
  162. nasal polypectomy
    removal of a nasal polyp
  163. pneumonectomy
    removal of an entire lung
  164. thoracentesis
    puncture for aspiration of the chest (pleural cavity)
  165. thoracoplasty
    repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
  166. thoracoscopy
    endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope
  167. thoracostomy
    creation of an opening in the chest, usually to insert a tube
  168. thoracotomy
    incision into the chest
  169. tonsillectomy
    excision of the palatine tonsils
  170. tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A)
    excision of the tonsils and adenoids
  171. tracheostomy
    creation of an opening in the trachea, usually to insert a tube
  172. tracheotomy
    incision into the trachea
  173. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    method of artificial respiration and chest compressions to move oxygenated blood to vital body organs when breathing and the hart have stopped
  174. continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy
    use of a device with a mask that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages; commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
  175. endotracheal intubation
    passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs
  176. incentive spirometry
    a common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and hold an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications
  177. mechanical ventilation
    mechanical breathing using a ventilator
  178. antibiotic
    a drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
  179. anticoagulant
    a drug that dissolves, or prevents the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessles
  180. antihistamine
    a drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
  181. histamine
    a cmpd in the body that is released by injured cells during allergic reactions; inflammation, and so on, causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle and dilation of blood vessels
  182. bronchodilator
    a drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
  183. expectorant
    a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing
Card Set
Respiratory system
chapter 7