what is another term for gag reflex and what is it?
retching that is elicited by stimulation of the sensitive tissues of the soft palate region
what is the reason for the gag reflex?
to protect the body by clearing the airway of obstruction
T/F only some patients have a gag reflex.
false! (ALL patients) some are more sensitive than others
what is a common problem when taking radiographs?
dealing with a patient with a hypersensitive gag reflex
what are the two areas in the mouth that are most likely to cause gagging?
lateral posterior third of the tongue
what two reactions occur before the gag reflex is initiated?
cessation of respiration
contraction of the muscles in the throat and abdomen
what two precipitating stimuli are responsible for initiating the gag reflex?
psychogenic stimuli- mind
tactile stimuli- touch
what must the operator be aware of with a hypersensitive patient to gagging?
pt equipment and preparations
film placement and technique
what must the operator attitude involve?
patience, tolerance and understanding
reassure the patient
what is the patient equipment and preparation?
limit the time the film is in the mouth
expose maxillary films last, since this is the most likely to elicit gag reflex
what should be done during film placement and technique?
avoid sliding the film along the roof of the mouth
demonstrate film placement before placement
what happens if there is an extreme case of gag reflex, what is the other option?
take extraoral film (pano/lateral jaw)
what is a patient with a disability?
physical or mental impairment that limits one or more of an individual's major life activities
to interact with a patient with visual disability, use _________ ___________.
someone with hearing impairment needs an __________, gesture, written instructions, face patient and speak _________
mobility impairment= __________ ___________, chair care, ___________ to assist with radiographs
autism, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, neuropathies, and mental retardation are ___________ impairment that occurs before age ____
what is involved with mental retardation?
coordination problems (mild sedative)
comprehensive problems (caregiver assistant)
possibly no radiographs or extraoral only
prescribing radiographs for pediatric patients is determined by
age and cooperation
patient and equipment preparations for a pedo patient
explain procedure (camera, blanket, picture)
exposure factors (reduced)
film size (0,1,2)
occlusal (size 2 or occlusal film)
how to manage a pediatric patient
confident, patient, understanding
show and tell
recommended technique and film holder for endo
paralleling technique (EndoRay)
what are the purposes of taking radiographs on edentulous patients?