ARH 347K

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    Chavín de Huántar (1200-200 BCE)

    • Callejón de Conchucas: eastern side of continental divide
    • 3150 masl-Quechua zone: maize agriculture
    • Junction of two rivers: WE-Wacheksa River, SN-Mosna (Pukcha) River

    • Major excavation by Julio C. Tello (Father of Peruvian Archaeology)
    • Other excavations by Rowe, Lumbreras, Burger, and Rick
  2. Origin of Chavin debate
    •Rafael Larco Hoyle: ‘coast to highlands’; from north-central (Nepeña) to north coast (Cupisnique); eventually to highlands (CdH)

    • •Julio C. Tello: ‘highlands to coast’; from tropical forest to highlands (CdH); later to coast (ex. Cerro Sechín)
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    Rowe's Stylistic Sequence of Chavin de Huantar: Phase AB (Old Temple)
    • -"U-shaped" architecture
    • -Facing East
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    Rowe's Stylistic Sequence of Chavin de Huantar: Phase C
    • -Addition to South
    • -Seem in West face of building
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    Rowe's Stylistic Sequence of Chavin de Huantar: Phase D (New Temple)
    • -Addition to South
    • -New axis to South
    • -Sunken square plaza
    • -Colonnaded portal
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    Rowe's Stylistic Sequence of Chavin de Huantar: Phase EF
    -Final fluorescence of monumental center
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    Name and phase
    Lanzón (Chavin)-Phase the old temple
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    Name and phase
    Tello Obelisk (Chavin)-Phase C
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    Name and phase
    Black and White Portal (Chavin)-Phase D (in the new temple)...columns and lintel false entranceway symbolic dualities
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    Smiling god Ashlar, possibly a central site idol (found in New Temple Plaza-Chavin)
  11. Symbolic dyad of Chavin de Huantar
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    name and phase
    Raimondi Stela (Chavin)-Phase EF

    • -From curvilinear to angular
    • -Central idols with balanced staffs
  13. Tello's Postulates (Chavin)
    • -Mother Culture of Ancient Andes
    • -Tropical forest origin
  14. Rowe's Postulates (Chavin)
    • -Central idols: supernatural forms presented frontally
    • -Avian images: prominent subjects, guardians of central idols, no feline forms
  15. Critical sites of Preceramic
    • Caral (circular plazas begin)
    • Kotosh (KRT, central firepits)
  16. Critical sites of Initial period
    • Cerro Sechin (stone facade)
    • Sechin Alto (U-shape building)
    • Caballo Muerto (feline head)
  17. Critical sites of Early Horizon period
    • Kuntur Wasi (elite tombs)
    • Chavin de Huantar (duality, artistic conventions)
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    Symbols from Circular Plaza Atrium of the Old Temple at Chavin de Huantar
    • -Strombus galeatus
    • -Profile possessing figures (strombus and spondylus)
    • -Cactus bearer Ashlar
    • -Felines of phase B
    • -Non-local ceramic styles (ex: Cupisnique)
  19. Coastal influence at Chavin
    • -Circular plaza
    • -U shaped architecture
    • -Northern ceramics
    • -Tropical marine shells
    • -Iconography
  20. What transformation did the Tenoned Heads experience in the Chavin architecture?
    more linear and lower relief face and nose plugs
  21. Dual figures in the Tello Obelisk
    • Caiman (primary)
    • Spondylus and Strombus shells
    • Manioc (root plants, below ground) vs. bottle gourd, chili pepper, peanut (above ground)
    • Male (manioc) vs female (peanut)
  22. Chavin artistic conventions
    • -"Kennings": formal substitutions
    • -Composite beings

    • -Binary opposition
    • -Contour rivalry
    • -Anatropic design
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    • New Temple Cornice
    • -Concentric circle markings
    • -serpent: Anaconda
    • -feline: Jaguar
  24. Kennings
    -Figurative device, in Old Norse poetry, where two words are creatively joined together to reference an unrelated topic (Ex: Seal's field = ocean wave = army advancing on battlefront)

    -In order to understand the reference, the audience must be part of culture and recognize the symbolic figurative devices
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    What are the kennings here?
    • Serpents = whiskers
    • Snake = tail
  26. Authority at Chavin de Huantar
    -Burger argues that the use of kennings intentionally obscures the images from the public view

    -It would thus have been the role of initiated priests at the site to explain the images around the sculpted façade.
  27. Charles Sanders Pearce Semiotic Analysis (icon, index, symbol)
    • Icon: direct representation of a real object
    • Index: indirect reference to a real object, action, or idea by way of direct association
    • Symbol: indirect reference to a real object, action or idea without direct association
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    Black and white portal columns dualities
    • South vs North
    • Female vs Male
    • Outstretched avian form vs profile avian form
    • Eagle vs Hawk
  29. Contour rivalry and example
    the ability to see the same image as composed of either two profile forms or one frontal, central image

    Ex: outstretched avian form of military macaw
  30. Anatropic design and example
    the ability to rotate an image 180o to produce a new legible image

    Ex: Raimondi Stela
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    • Pacopampa
    • -Emphasis on central, sunken plazas
    • -Use of internal/subterranean stone-lined canals
    • -Three-terrace style architecture
    • -Stone columns
    • -Circular plaza built into the architecture
  32. Shared features of Kuntur Wasi and Chavin de Huantar
    • -Sunken rectangular plazas
    • -Sunken circular plazas
    • -Stone-lined sub-floor canals
    • -Dual color scheme in stone architecture
  33. Repousse
    a metal working technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side
  34. Agnathic
    lacking a lower jaw
  35. North Coast goldwork in Chavin Horizon style
    • -narigueras (nose ornaments)
    • -personal adornments: pins, rings, etc.
  36. Chavin Horizon motifs
    • -Feline-Avian-Serpent triad
    • -Concentric circle design
    • -Staff-bearing figures
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    • Gold Spoon
    • -blowing Strombus trumpet (pututo)
    • -avian embossed design on back
    • -top knot hairdo
    • -dual coloration (silver pututo, gold spoon)
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    • Chavin-Outstretched Avian forms
    • -High relief
    • -Thick stirrup and spout
    • -Reduced fire wares
    • -Often high polish
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    • South Coast textiles of Chavin
    • -Staff god figure with serpent coming out of head and loin cloth
    • -Eyes and S-shape design
    • -Stylized feline
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    • North Coast Ecology
    • -Doing its own thing
    • -Leads to establishment of Moche culture
    • -Shift from focus on raptorial birds to the OWL
    • -Head the most important element
    • -Mouse is another prominent species
    • --Comes out in late Cupisnique
    • --Multiple rodents and multiple rodents eating means you have an abundance of crops
    • --Symbol of fertility in landscape
    • -Owl=hunter, Mouse=prey
    • -Duality of rodents as destroyer as well as extreme fertility
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    • Three-Banded Armadillo (Chavin)
    • -can roll up to shield themselves against predators
    • -Have been found in burial tombs
  42. Moche style
    • Simple color palette: red, white, black
    • Stirrup spout bottles
    • Largely oxidized wares
    • Painted fineline scenes
    • Naturalistic modeled figural forms
  43. Realistic animal and plant figures in Moche ceramics
    • Vampire bat
    • Eagle Ray
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    • A=stirrup spout bottle (allows painting on body)
    • B=stirrup spout bottle (side view)
    • C=stirrup spout jar
    • D=spout and handle bottle
    • E=florero (flaring bowl-design around inside of rim as well as exterior of bowl itself)
    • F=large jar
    • G=canchero ("corn popper"-probably used to serve chicha or some other liquid)
    • H=bridge and spout bottle (whistling bottles)
  45. Hoyle's Five Phase Sequence
    • Shape of spout
    • Form of lip
    • Style of painting
    • Types of scenes

    • Created a direct relation between stylistic change and changes to the Moche society
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  46. Scenes in Phase I-II of Moche ceramics
    • Spider decapitators and supernatural decapitators
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  47. Scenes in Phase III of Moche ceramics
    • Dancing skeletons, wrinkle face, ritual battle and capture, canchero ("corn popper")
    • Fine line painting emerging, first time we see expansion of Moche culture out from the central
    • Wrinkle-face reference back to Cupisnique, looking back to the ancient past
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  48. Scenes in Phase IV of Moche ceramics
    • More thematic and narrative, presentation theme/sacrifice ceremony, most prolific phase
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  49. Scenes in Phase V of Moche ceramics
    • Burial theme, fine line around body, more condensed type of painting
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  50. Quotidian scenes in Moche ceramics
    Telling us about local species: deer hunting, snail gathering, etc.
  51. Not in Moche Iconography
    • Domestic activities
    • Irrigation practices
    • Craft activities
  52. Yacovleff and Herrera iconographic studies (1930s)
    animal species identifications
  53. Gerdt Kutscher iconographic studies (1958)
    battle scenes and warfare
  54. Anne-Marie Hocquenghem iconographic studies (1987)
    structuralist approach: interpreting iconography with help of enthographic and enthohistoric information on the myths and rituals from the Inca and post-Inca periods
  55. Christopher B. Donnan iconographic studies (1970s-present)
    artistic canons, visual programs, material design
  56. Donnan Moche Artistic Canons
    • Hierarchy of scale
    • Gender differentiation
    • Perspective and depth
    • Status markers
    • Pose and actions

    • Identification of artists
    • Identification of portraits
  57. Steve Bourget iconographic studies (2006)
    El Nino, erotic scenes, sacrifice
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    What Moche phase?
    Phase I
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    What Moche phase?
    Phase II
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    What Moche phase?
    Phase III
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    What Moche phase?
    Phase IV
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    What Moche phase?
    Phase V
  63. Early Icongraphic studies in Moche themes and narratives
    • Animal and plant identifications
    • Warfare and battle
    • Hunting and daily life
    • Mythic and supernatural scenes
  64. Natural vs Supernatural
    •Hocquenghem argues that there are two modes of representations in Moche iconography, those that illustrate the natural realm and those that illustrate the mythic, supernatural realm.
  65. Thematic Approach
    • -Proposed by Christopher B. Donnan, UCLA
    • -There are a limited number of scenes and characters
    • -Scenes may be represented in entirety or isolated figures illustrated to recall the story
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    • Presentation theme
    • -When we see a bottle and scene that go together

    -Figure holding a cup which probably contains blood being presented to a central figure

    • -A: central figure receiving cup, usually with elements extending out from his back; Rayed deity
    • -B: offering
    • -C: female figure (elements extending out from headdress)
    • -D: Ulluchu under figure; Ulluchu had anti-coagulant properties
    • -E and F: collecting the blood
    • -G: sacrificial victims
    • -Bat collecting the blood instead of a feline
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ARH 347K
Exam 1: Chavin de Huantar to