Parenting- Exam 2

  1. Negative forms of parental interaction
    • scapegoating
    • triangulation
    • enmeshed families
    • disengaged-parents
  2. scapegoating
    detouring feelings of tension and focusing the feelings on a child
  3. triangulation
    one parent forming an alliance with one of the children and excluding other children or spouse
  4. enmeshed families
    parents were angry, unable to agree on parenting rules
  5. disengaged parents
    high levels of hostility and did not support each other
  6. Coparenting
    • how two or more parenting figures relate to each other as they work together to parent
    • married, separated, divorced, remarried, extended family
  7. ingredients of effective coparenting
    • cooperation
    • clear communication
    • coordination of effort
    • agreed-upon standards
    • clear boundaries
    • emotional closeness
    • connection
  8. Unconditioned positive regard develops in two ways:
    • sensitive, responsive care that meets child's needs
    • becoming an interactive social partner who shares child's response to life's experiences
  9. Ways parents handle their discomfort of discussing feelings:
    • dismissive- minimize importance, make light of them
    • disapproving- criticize, judge and punish children for expressing feelings
    • laissez-faire- accept all feelings but do not guide children in how to deal with feelings
  10. 5 steps in emotion coaching
    • parents recognize when children are having a feelings, what that feeling is and when others are having feelings
    • parents consider feelings as opportunities for intimacy or teaching
    • parents listen empathetically and validate
    • parents help child verbally label feelings
    • parents set limits while helping child solve problem (do not limit feeling)
  11. I message parts
    • clear statement of how parent feels
    • statement of the behavior that has caused parent to feel that way
    • statement describing why behavior is upsetting to parent
  12. Benefits of I messages
    • when used, parents begin to take their own needs seriously
    • children learn about parents' reaction
    • children have opportunity to solve problems in response to I messages
  13. 8 forms of positive parent-child communication
    • naming with approval
    • taking turns
    • strengthening the weak link
    • following
    • saying yes (not don't)
    • supportive initiative
    • taking lead
    • sharing pleasant moments
  14. Actions to control media
    • limit number of media choices in home, location
    • turn off during mealtimes and when not using them
    • interact with children during use
    • use v-chips, filters
    • set media rules and enforce them
    • use for learning and interaction
  15. discipline
    • teaching children to behave in was considered appropriate by their parents, teachers, and caregivers
    • helps children learn control and making appropriate choices
    • must be positive, reasonable and temperate
  16. Factors which affect the way parents discipline children
    • personality/temperament
    • family background
    • family values
    • birth order
    • financial and social status
  17. Guidelines for deciding on a method of discipline
    • no right way
    • do not use abusive corporal physical punishment
    • try to understand their emotions and motivations
    • facilitate children's opportunities to learn to think and reason for themselves
    • learn to value individual differences of children
    • maintain a clear understanding that discipline should be based on helping children develop internal structure that is healthy
  18. positive responsive parenting strategies include
    • paying positive attention to child
    • spending time with them
    • encouraging skill development
    • monitoring children's activities
    • engaging in problem solving when difficulties arise
  19. six steps to problem solving process
    • define the problem
    • generate possible solutions
    • evaluate possible solutions
    • decide on best solution
    • implement the decision
    • follow-up evaluation
  20. Natural consequences
    • direct result of a physical act
    • stay up late, you get sleepy
    • touch hot stove, get burned
  21. Logical consequences
    • events that follow social act
    • misuse family care, parents won't trust you
    • leave your ball glove in yard, damaged
  22. six general principles of discipline
    • intervene early
    • stay as calm and objective as possible
    • state rule that was violated
    • use a mild negative consequence
    • use negative consequences consistently
    • reinforce positive social behaviors afterward
  23. types of discipline
    • ignoring- whining, sulking, pouting
    • social disapproval- in public
    • time-out
  24. ineffective forms of discipline
    • inconsistent discipline
    • irritable, harsh, explosive, discipline
    • low-supervision and low involvement
    • inflexible, rigid discipline
  25. mild physical punishment
    • slap or two with flat of hand on buttocks or extremities without causing any physical injury
    • ages 2-6 usually
  26. abuse
    beating, kicking, punching that results in injury
  27. 4 factors related to parents who spank
    • parents belief in its usefulness
    • parents own experiences with it as a child
    • authoritarian style of parenting
    • problems with aggressiveness
  28. Reasons for having children
    • love and satisfying, close relationship with others
    • stimulation and excitement of watching them grow
    • means of self-development
    • achieving adult status
    • expression of moral, religious belief
    • utility- caring for you when you're old
  29. Reasons for not having children
    • restrictions- freedom, time, etc
    • negative feelings evoked by children- worry, discipline, etc
    • concerns about being a poor parent
  30. optimal parenting environment
    • feelings of self-esteem
    • capacity for positive mutuality in relationships, especially with partner
    • capacity for flexible problem solving
  31. Cowan and Cowan's 4 decision making patterns for would-be parents
    • planners- make definite decision about parenting
    • acceptance of fate- unplanned pregnancies, but accepted quietly or enthusiastically
    • ambivalent- both positive and negative feelings, one parent leaning one direction and others leaning another
    • yes-no- marked conflict about having or not having
  32. risks for adolescents
    • social background of mother
    • early family relationships
    • individual personality characteristics
    • peer relationships
    • early maturation and high rates of sexual activity
    • sexual abuse
    • older fathers/boyfriends
  33. Risk factors for children of adolescent mothers
    • poverty
    • birth complications, prematurity, etc
    • poor parenting from mothers
    • behavior and school problems
    • less social support
  34. Protective factors for children of adolescent mothers
    • being a boy
    • easy adaptable temperament
    • intelligent
    • mother continuing education
    • mother limiting subsequent children
    • mother entering stable marriage
    • mother having high self-esteem
  35. Infertility
    failure to conceive after a year of unprotected sex
  36. Types of Assisted Reproductive Technology
    • In vitro fertilization- eggs and sperm are mixed in lab to fertlize and some zygotes are transferred to uterus
    • egg donations
    • embryo donations
    • surrogacy
    • sperm donations- first type of donation
    • intracytoplasmic sperm injection- injection of sperm into egg then placed in uterus or fallopian tube
    • gamete intrafallopian transfer- collecting eggs then placing them into a tube with sperm, injected into fallopian tubes
    • zygote intrafallopian transfer- combines ivf and gift, eggs and sperm mixed outside body then but in fallopian tubes
  37. changes for mothers
    • tiredness and exhaustion
    • loss of sleep- 2 months
    • concern about ignoring husband's needs
    • feeling inadequate
    • inability to keep up with housework
    • feeling down
  38. changes for fathers
    • loss of sleep- 6 weeks
    • need to adjust to new responsibilities and routines
    • disruption of daily routines
    • ignorance of the amount of work baby requires
    • financial worries
  39. dimensions underlying transition to parenthood
    • capacity to balance individuality and mutuality
    • communication skills of both parents
    • attitude in confronting situations and people
    • expectations about what baby will bring
    • ability to devise sharing of workload
    • ability to come to terms with patterns of behavior learned in family of origin
    • ability to manage conflict effectively
  40. social referencing
    looking to parents to judge how to respond
  41. Physical development of first two years
    • nervous system more integrated by 3 months- awake more during day and sleep more at night
    • by 8 months, physical changes result of melination of neurons- coordination, crawling, walking, etc
  42. intellectual development in first 2 years
    • sensorimotor period of life
    • move from interest in own body to interest in others
    • 18-24 months representational though develops
  43. language development in first 2 years
    • first forms of language are cries, laughs, frowns
    • first words pertain to objects, people and experiences important to child
    • first words explain feelings but do not label feelings
  44. emotional development in first 2 years
    • facial expressions
    • respond to other's emotional reactions
    • self regard
    • empathy- touching, cuddling, not as much concern when cause of stress
    • anger- peak at 2 years, good structure and routines results in fewer outbursts
  45. Development of self
    • 1-4 mos- establishes predictable patterns of behavior
    • 4-10- become separate individual from caregiver
    • 10-15- greater sense of self as one who makes things happen
    • 15-18- "me self" begin to internalize how others react to them
    • 18-24- recognize self in mirror and photos, respond to others responses to them
    • 24-36- greater sense of separation of self from others, personal pronouns and describing what they can and can't do
  46. attachment develops in 4 stages
    • undiscriminating social responsiveness (2-3 mos)
    • discrimination in social responsiveness (4-5)
    • seeking physical proximity and contact with familiar people (7)
    • goal-directed partnership (3 years)
  47. Bornstein's 4 main tasks for parents of infants
    • nurturant caregiving: food, protection, warmth, affection
    • material caregiving: organizing babies' world with inanimate objects, stimulation, and opportunities
    • social caregiving: interaction with others, hugging, soothing, vocalizing, playing
    • didactic caregiving: stimulating infants' interest in and understanding of world outside parent-child relationship
Card Set
Parenting- Exam 2
Chapters 4-7