1. Physiology
    the study of function
  2. Homeostasis
    integration of all the body systems to produce an organism that can maintain a stable internal environment by dynamic equilibrium
  3. Flexion
    bending, to decrease the angle between two bones to less than 180 degrees.
  4. Extension
    straightening, to increase the angle between two bones to 180 degrees
  5. Hyperextension
    increasing the angle between two bones beyond 180 degrees
  6. Plantar Flexion
    standing on the toes
  7. Abduction
    movement away from the body of the midline
  8. Adduction
    movement toward the body or the midline
  9. Pronation
    moving the arm so the palm of the hand is downward or moving the whole body so the face is downward
  10. Supination
    moving the arms so that the palm of the hand is facing upward or moving the whole body so that the face is upward
  11. Rotation
    movement of a part around a fixed point to a maximum of 180 degrees
  12. Depression
    to lower a part
  13. Elevation
    to raise a part
  14. Protraction
    moving a part outward
  15. Retraction
    drawing a part back
  16. Eversion
    turning the sole of the foot outward
  17. Inversion
    turing the sole of the foot inward
  18. Circumduction
    movement of the ends of a limb to inscribe a circle 360 degrees
  19. Mediastinum
    space between the pleural cavities that contains the thymus, lymph vessels, esophagus, trachea, and nerves
  20. Midsagittal
    divides the body vertically through the midline into right and left halves
  21. Retroperitoneal
    behind the parietal peritoneum but within the abdominal wall
  22. Mid-Axillary line
    an imaginary straight line from the mid-axillary region downward that separates the anterior and posterior chest
  23. Mid-Clavicular line
    imaginary straight line from the mid region of the clavicle downward on the anterior chest-wall
  24. RUQ Right Upper Quadrant
    contains liver, gall bladder, head of pancreas, part of duodenum (SI), right kidney and part of the colon
  25. LUQ Left Upper Quadrant
    contains the spleen, tail of the pancreas, stomach, left kidney and part of the colon
  26. RLQ Right Lower Quadrant
    appendix, ascending colon small intestine and the right ovary and fallopian tube
  27. LLQ Left Lower Quadrant
    small intestine, descending colon, and left ovary and fallopian tube
  28. Frontal or Coronal
    divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) at right angles to the sagittal plane
  29. Horizontal or Transverse
    dividing the body into superior and inferior portions
  30. Sagittal or Parasagittal
    any plane parallel to the midsagittal line vertically dividing the body into right and left portions
  31. Dorsiflexion
    standing on the heels
  32. Negative Feedback
    a self regulatory compensatory system
  33. Positive Feedback
    a compensatory but not self-regulatory system, seen also in pathological conditions
  34. Thoracic Cavity
    contains the lungs
  35. Ventral Cavity (Thoracic Cavity)
    pleural cavities houses the lungs and great vessels
  36. Ventral Cavity (Abdominopelvic Cavity)
    • contains organs inferior to the respiratory diaphragm but above the urogenital diaphragm
    • in the abdomen
    • in the pelvis
  37. Dorsal Cavity (Spinal Cavity)
    contains the spinal cord
  38. Dorsal Cavity (Cranial Cavity)
    contains the brain
  39. Pericardial Cavity
    houses the heart and the pericardium
  40. Smooth ER
    • does not participate in protein synthesis
    • present in cells that produce steroid-based hormones
    • also abundant in cells that are active in lipid metabolism and drug detoxification
  41. Chromosomes
    • dense, darkly staining, nuclear body
    • packaging site for ribosomes
  42. Neucleus
    • control center of cell
    • necessary for cell division and cell life
  43. Rough ER
    its cisternae modify and store the newly fromed proteins and dispatch them to other areas of the cell
  44. Lysosomes
    • contains digestive enzymes of many varieties
    • "suicide sac" of the cell
  45. Intermediate Filaments
    contractile elements of the cytoskeleton
  46. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • membranous system
    • involved in intracellular transport of proteins and synthesis of membrane lipids
  47. Mitosis
    • process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to two daughter nuclei; nuclear division
    • prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis
  48. Interphase
    • the longer period during which the cell grows and carries out it's usual activities
    • Cell formation---Cell division
  49. Prophase
    the first stage of mitosis, consisting of coiling of the chromosomes accompanied by migration of the two daughter centrioles toward the poles of the cell, and nuclear membrane breakdown
  50. Metaphase
    second sage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes migrate to the central plane or equator of the spindle and align along that plane in a straight line from which the superior to the inferior region of the spindle "rosette circle"
  51. Anaphase
    3rd stage of mitosis, meiosis I, Meiosis II, in which daughter chromosomes move toward each pole of a cell
  52. Telophase
    The final phase of mitosis, begins when migration of chromosomes to the poles of the cell has been completed and ends with the formation of two daughter nuclei
  53. Cell Division
    when cell produces itself by dividing
  54. Organelles
    small cellular structures "small organs"
  55. Peroxisomes
    site of free radical detoxification
  56. Cytoplasm
    • stored glycogen granules, crystals, pigments, and so on.
    • (cellular material surrounding the nucleus, enclosed by plasma membrane)
  57. Ribosomes
    • attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm
    • synthesize proteins
  58. Centrioles
    • two rod-shaped bodies near the nucleus
    • direct formation of the mitotic spindle
  59. Golgi apparatus
    • membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles
    • packages proteins for export
  60. Chromatin
    threadlike structure in the nucleus; contain genetic material DNA
  61. Selective Permeability
    • a membrane that allows certain substances to pass while restricting the movement of others
    • also called "differentially permeable membrane"
  62. Meiosis
    nuclear division process that reduces the chromosomal number by half and results in the formation of four haploid cells, occurs in certain reproductive organs
  63. Function of Meiosis
    used only for the production of gametes (eggs and sperm) for sexual reproduction
  64. The Function of Cell division, Mitosis, Cytokinesis
    is to high the number of cells for growth and repair, while maintaining their genetic heritage
  65. Cytosol
    the fluid cytoplasmic material
  66. Filtration
    used to separate particles and fluid in suspension; occurs only across capillary walls
  67. Cell
    structural unit of all living things
  68. Mitochondria
    • scattered throughout the cell
    • major site of ATP synthesis
  69. Plasma Membrane
    • external boundary of cell
    • regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell, site of cell signaling
  70. Cytokinesis
    the division of the cytoplasmic mass, begins during late anaphase and continues through telophase (occurs after the cell and nucleus has divided) The division of cytoplasm
  71. Diffusion
    is the movement of molecules form a region of higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration driving force kinetic energy
  72. Nuclear pores
    are spanned by diaphragms, these pores permit easy passage of protein and RNA molecules
  73. Nucleoli
    are assembly sites for ribosomal particles which are the actual protein-synthesizing "factories"
  74. Nuclear Envelope
    the double membrane barrier of a cell nucleus
  75. Microvilli
    slender extensions of the plasma membrane that increase it's surface area
  76. Crenation
    • crinkling-up process is due to the fact that the 5% sodium chloride solutions is hypertonic to the cytosol of the red blood cell
    • water tends to leave the cells by osmosis
  77. Hemolysis
    • in a hypotonic solution the red blood cells "plump up" then they suddenly start to disappear
    • the red blood cells burst as the water floods into them, leaving "ghosts" in their wake."
  78. Mitotic Spindle
    acts as a scaffolding for the attachment and movement of the chromosomes during later mitotic stages
  79. Concentration gradient
    • difference in concentration
    • exits the net effect of this random molecular movement is that the molecules eventually become evenly distributed throughout the environment
  80. Inclusions
    not part of the active metabolic machinery of the cell, stored foods, crystals, water vacuoles, and ingested foreign materials
  81. Microfilaments
    • thin strands of the contractile protein actin
    • ribbon or cordlike elements
  82. Microtubules
    • slender tubules formed of proteins called tubulins
    • aggregate and disaggregate spontaneously
    • organize the cytoskeleton and direct formation of the spindle formed by the centrioles during cell division
  83. Cytoskeletal Elements
    ramify throughout the cytoplasm, forming an internal scaffolding called the cytoskeleton that supports and moves substances within the cell
  84. Exocytosis
    movement out of the cell
  85. Endocytosis
    movement into the cell
  86. Vesicular transport
    large particles and molecules are transported across the membrane
  87. Phagocytosis
    (cell eating) parts of the plasma membrane and cytoplasm expand and flow around a relatively large or solid material and engulf it
  88. Pinocytosis (fluid-phase endocytosis)
    the cell membrane sinks beneath the material to form a small vesicle which then pinches off into the cell interior.
  89. Receptor mediated Endocytosis
    is exquisitely selective and is used primarily for cellular uptake or specific molecules such as cholesterol, iron, and some hormones, and for transfer of substances from one side of the cell to the other
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