1. Learning
    a relatively permanant change in behavior, knowledge, capability or attitude that is acquired through experience
  2. classical conditioning
    is a type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus to another
  3. unconditioned stimulus
    UCS - produces a response without any learning
  4. unconditioned response
    UCR - response to an UCS
  5. conditioned stimulus
    CS - neutral stimulus, that after pairing with a UCS, becomes associated with it and elicits a CR
  6. conditioned response
    learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an UCS
  7. extinction
    weakened and eventual disapperance of the CR as a result of repeated presentation of the CS without the UCS
  8. (stimulus) generalization
    tendancy to make a CR to a stimulus that is similar to the original CS
  9. cognitive perspective
    • Robert Rescorla
    • conditioning depends on whether the CS provides information that enables reliable predictions of the UCS
  10. drug use
    the CS associated with drug use lead individuals to seek out those substances
  11. taste aversion
    intense dislike/avoidance of particular food that has been associated with discomfort
  12. Thorndike's Law of Effect
    • -the consequences of a response will determine whether the tendancy to respond in the same way in the future will be strengthened/weakened
    • -responses followed by "satisfying consequences" are more likely to be repeated
    • -responses with unpleasant responses will be avoided
  13. operant conditioning
    type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated in order to increase/decrease frequency of response or to shape a new response
  14. operant
    voluntary behavior that accidentally brings about a consequence
  15. reinforcer
    anything that follows a response and strengthens it or increases probability that it will occur again
  16. discriminitive stimulus
    • -signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored or punished
    • -children misbehave with grandparents because the discriminitive stimulus (parents) is not present
  17. shaping
    consists of gradually molding a desired behavior by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response. gradually, the responses are guided toward the ultimate goal
  18. successive approximations
    a series of gradual steps, each more similar to the final desired response than the one before
  19. reinforcement
    any event that follows a response and either strengthens the response or increases the probability that the response will be repeated
  20. positive reinforcement
    when you have a pleasant or desirable consequence that follows a response and increases the probability that the response will be repeated; the same as a reward
  21. negative reinforcement
    when you have termination of an unpleasant condition following a response, but you are still trying to increase the probability that the response will be repeated
  22. anything with reinforcement is intended to increase behavior
    anything with reinforcement is intended to increase behavior
  23. primary reinforcer
    • reinforcer that fulfills a basic need for survival and does not depend on learning
    • ex: food, water
  24. secondary reinforcer
    • acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers
    • ex: money, praise
  25. 4 types of schedules of reinforcement
    • fixed-ratio schedule
    • variable ratio schedule
    • fixed interval schedule
    • variable interval schedule
  26. fixed ratio schedule
    • reinforcement provided after a fixed number of correct responses
    • the faster the response, the more reinforcers they recieve
  27. variable ratio schedule
    • reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses
    • ex: gambling
  28. fixed interval schedule
    • reinforcement is provided following a correct response after a specific amount of time has passed
    • ex: salary pay, not hourly
  29. variable interval schedule
    • reinforcement is given after the first correct response following a varying amount of time
    • ex: random drug tests
  30. punishment
    removal of a pleasant stimulus of the application of an unpleasant stimulus intended to decrease the probability of a response; intended to decrease behavior
  31. the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement:
    punishment adds an unpleasant condition (ex: grounded for not cleaning room) while negative reinforcement is when an unpleasant condition is terminated/avoided (ex: grounded until your room is clean)
  32. punishment does not distinguish an undesired behavior, it suppresses the behavior when the punishing agent is present but the behavior often continues when the threat of punishment is gone.
    punishment indicates that a behavior is unacceptable but does not help people develop more appropriate behaviors
  33. punishment should be used in conjunction with reinforcement for appropriate behaviors
    • -the person who is punished may retaliate, avoid or try to escape the punisher
    • -the loss of a privelege is usually more effective than physical punishment
    • -punishment can lead to aggressive behaviors
  34. Punishment is necessary to stop:
    Unwanted behavior
  35. Factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment:
    • Timing
    • Intensity
    • Consistancy
  36. If you do have to delay punishment:
    The child should be reminded of why they are being punished and why the behavior was inappropriate
  37. Unnecessarily severe punishment gives the opposite effect
    If punishment is too mild, you will have no effect
  38. Reducing & Eliminating Undesired Behavior
    • 1. Clarify problem behavior and the consequence for that behavior
    • 2. Provide immediate consequences when the behavior occurs
    • 3. Provide consistant consequences
    • 4. Deliver instructions and corrections calmly
    • 5. Explain reasoning behind the consequences
  39. Strategies to Help Children Learn Positive Behaviors
    • 1. Provide regular, positive attention
    • 2. Listen carefully to children and help them learn words to express their feelings
    • 3. Allow children to make choices when possible
    • 4. Reinforce desirable behaviors with frequent praise and ignoring trivial misdeeds
    • 5. Model correct and predictable behavior and respectable communication and appropriate conflict resolution
  40. Escape learning
    When you perform a behavior because it prevents and terminates an adversive events
  41. Avoidance learning
    Engaging in behaviors to avoid an adverse consequence
  42. Learned helplessness
    When you have been repeatedly exposed to inescapable and unavoidable adversive events, you often give up because you feel that what you do will not matter anyway
  43. Behavior modification
    Method for changing behavior
  44. Steps of behavior modification
    • 1. Identify target behavior
    • 2. Gather & record baseline data
    • 3. Plan your behavior modification program
    • 4. Chose reinforcers
    • 5. Begin recording and reinforcing progress
  45. Token economy
    Program that motivates socially desirable behavior by reinforcing it with tokens that can be exchanged for rewards
  46. Time out
    Remove child from all sources of positive reinforcement
  47. Cognitive processes
    Mental processes such as thinking, knowing, problem solving & remembering
  48. Latent learning
    Occurs without parent reinforcement and is not demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so
  49. Observational learning
    Learn from observing other people and consequences they experience "modeling"
  50. Modeling effect
    Learning a new behavior from a model through the acquisition of new responses
  51. Elicitation effect
    Exhibiting a behavior similar to that shown by a model in an unfamiliar situation
  52. Disinhibitory effect
    Displaying a previously supressed behavior because a model does it without being punished
  53. Inhibitory effect
    Supress a behavior because a model is punished for the behavior
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