Quiz 1

  1. Integrative review of research
    critiquing studies on a selected topic or practice problem
  2. Evidenced-based practice
    integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values and needs in the delivery of high-quality, cost-effective health care
  3. Inductive reasoning
    moves from the specific statement to the general statement

    • - A headache is an altered level of health that is stressful
    • - A terminal illness is an altered level of health that is stressful
    • Therefore, it can be induced that all altered levels of health are stressful.
  4. Deductive reasoning
    moves from the general premise to a particular conclusion

    • - All human beings experience loss
    • - All adolescents are human beings
    • Therefore, it can be deduced that all adolescents experience loss.
  5. Premise
    a statement of the proposed relationshiop between two or more concepts
  6. Quantitative research
    • a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world
    • theory testing
  7. Outcomes research
    focuses on examining the result of care or determining the changes in health status for the patient
  8. Descriptive research
    • the exploration and description of phenomena in real-life situations; it provides an accurate account of characteristics of particular individuals, situations, or groups
    • a type of quantitative research
  9. Correlational research
    • involves the systematic investigation of relationships between or among variables
    • a type of quantitative research
  10. Basic research (pure research)
    the pursuit of "knowledge for knowledge's sake"
  11. Applied research (practical research)
    scientific investigation conducted to generate knowledge that will directly influence or improve clinical practice
  12. Rigor
    (quantitative research)
    • striving for excellence in research
    • requires discipline, adherence to detail, and strict accuracy
  13. Precision
    • accuracy, detail and order
    • an aspect of rigor
  14. Control
    rules made to decrease the possibility of error, thereby increasing the probability that the study's findings are an accurate reflection of reality
  15. Process includes...
    • a purpose
    • a series of actions
    • a goal
  16. Nursing process
    • subset of the problem-solving process
    • steps: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation, and modification
  17. Quantitative research process
    • conceptualizing a research project
    • planning and implementing that project
    • communicating the findings
  18. Literature review
    generates a picture of what is known and not known about a particular problem
  19. Framework
    the abstract, theoretical basis for a study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing's body of knowledge
  20. Theory
    an integrated set of defined concepts and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control the phenomenon
  21. Limitations
    restrictions in a study that may decrease the credibility and generalizability of the findings
  22. Theoretical limitations
    weaknessess in the framework and definitions that restrict the generalization of the findings
  23. Methodological limitations
    limit the credibility of the findings and restrict the population to which the findings can be generalized
  24. Pilot study
    • a smaller version of a proposed study
    • conducted to refine the methodology
  25. Population
    • all elements (individuals, objects, or substances) that meet certain criteria for inclusion in a study
    • e.g. every male in the world who's in his 20s
  26. Sample
    • a subset of the population that is selected for a particular study
    • members of a sample are the subjects
    • e.g. the ten men, in their 20s, who are part of the study
  27. Measurement
    the process of assigning numbers to objects (or events or situations) in accord with some rule
  28. Reliability
    concerned with how consistently the measurement technique measures a variable or concept
  29. Validity
    the extent to which the instrument actually reflects or measures what it is supposed to measure
  30. Data analysis
    conducted to reduce, organize, and give meaning to the data
  31. Research report
    • summarizes the major elements of a study and identifies the contributions of that study to nursing knowledge
    • used to communicate with other researchers
    • filled with jargon
  32. 6 parts of a research report
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • References
  33. Quasi-experimental study
    • conducted to determine the effect of a treatment or independent variable on the dependent or outcome variables
    • causal research
    • lack the design, sample, or setting that might be used in an experimental study
    • a type of quantitative research
  34. Experimental study
    • examines cause-and-effect relationships between independent and dependent variables under highly controlled conditions
    • an objective, systematic, highly controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice
  35. Qualitative research
    • a systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning
    • theory developing
  36. Phenomenological research
    • to capture the "lived experience" of study participants
    • "what is the meaning of one's lived experience?"
    • reality is subjective
    • the world is shaped by, and shapes, the self
    • a type of qualitative research

    Parse, Watson, Benner
  37. Grounded theory research
    • reality is created by attaching meanings to situations, expressed in symbols
    • how do people define reality and how their beliefs are related to their actions?
    • a type of qualitative research

    data -> theory (instead of theory -> data)
  38. Ethnographic research
    • mechanism for studying cultures
    • "portrait of a people"
    • a type of qualitative research
  39. Emic approach
    studying behaviors from within the culture
  40. Etic approach
    studying behaviors from outside the culture
  41. Ethnonursing research
    focuses mainly on observing and documenting interactions with people of how these daily life conditions and patterns are influencing human care, health, and nursing care practices
  42. External criticism
    • used to determine the validity of source material
    • where, when, why, and by whom?
    • does it measure what it's supposed to measure?
  43. Internal criticism
    • examination of the reliability of the document
    • determine possible biases of the author
    • consistency?
  44. Researcher-participant relationship
    has an impact on the collection and interpretation of data
  45. Reflexive thought
    the researcher explores personal feelings and experience that may influence the study and integrates this understanding into the study
  46. Bracketing
    • suspending or laying aside what the researcher already knows about the experience being studied
    • reflexive thought leads to bracketing
  47. Rigor
    (qualitative research)
    associated with openness, scrupulous adherence to a philosophical perspective, thoroughness in collecting data, and consideration of all of the data in the subjective theory development phase
  48. Quantitative rigor vs. qualitative rigor
    • Quantitative rigor: striving for excellence in research with discipline, adherence to detail and strict accuracy
    • Qualitative rigor: openness, scrupulous adherence to philosophical perspective, thoroughness in collecting data, consideration of all the data
  49. Intellectual research critique
    a careful, complete examination of a study to judge its strengths, weaknesses, logical links, meaning, and significance
  50. Phases to quantitative research critique process
    • comprehension: understanding terms and concepts in the study
    • comparison: knowledge of each step of the research process
    • analysis: critique of logical links in study
    • evaluation: meaning and significance of the study
  51. Standards of the qualitative research critique process
    • descriptive vividness: detail and richness
    • methodological congruence: was the approach consistent with the philosophical basis of the study?
    • analytical and interpretative preciseness: involves others in the interpretative process
    • philosophical/theoretical connectedness: findings need to be clearly expressed, consistent and compatible
    • heuristic relevance: reader's ability to recognize the phenomenon described in the study
  52. Triangulation
    the use of both quantitative methods and qualitative methods to create a true picture of reality
  53. Extraneous variables
    can interfere with the measurement of the study variables and the relationships among these variables
  54. Conceptual definition
    explains a concept in abstract/theoretical terms
  55. Operational definition
    explains a concept in concrete terms
  56. Decision trails
    strategies by which other researchers, using the same data, can follow the logic of the original researcher and arrive at the same conclusions
Card Set
Quiz 1
nursing research