1. The pieces of information you collect and use to examine your topic, hypotheses, or observations
  2. An abstraction that cannot be observed directly; it is a concept invented to explain behavior
  3. In educational reserach, an ______ is a tool used to collect data.
  4. A system of organizing data so that it may be inspected, analyzed, and interpreted
    Mearsurement Scale
  5. Also called a categorical variable because the values include two or more named categories. Include sex, employment status, matrial status, and type of school. Are often represented by numbers.
    nominal variable
  6. ________ not only classifies persons or objects, it also ranks them. In other words ______ have, as their values, rankings in order from ighest to lowest or from most to least.
    Ordinal Variables
  7. Has all the characteristics of nominal and ordinal variables, but its values also respresent equal intervals
    Interval variable
  8. has all the prperties of Nominal, Ordinal and Interval variables. Its mearsurment scale has a true zero point.
    Ratio Variable
  9. Hight, Weight, Time, Distance, and speed are exmaples of this variable.
    Ratio Variable
  10. As discussed in Chapter 1, the ____________________ in an experimental study is the variable hypthosized to depend on or to be caused by another variable, the _________.
    Dependent and Independent
  11. A formal, systematic, usually paper and pencil procedure for gathering information about people's cognitive and affective characterisics.
  12. a mental characterisitic related to intellect, such as achievement.
    Cognitive Characterisitic
  13. A mental characterisic related to emotion, such as attitude
    Affective characterisitc
  14. A ______ is one that is administered, scored, and interpreted in the same way no matter where or when it is used.
    Standardized test
  15. A broad tem that encompasses the entire process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting information, whether formal or informal, numerical or textual.
  16. The process of quantifying or scoring performace on an assessment instrument
  17. Also known as authentic or alternative assessment, is a type of assessment that emphasizes a student process (lab demonstration, debate, oral speech or dramatic performance) or product (an essay, science fair project, a research report).
    Performance Assessment
  18. The number or point value of items a person answered correctly on an assessment.
    Raw Score
  19. A student's performance on an assessment is compared to the performance of others.
    Norm-referenced scoring
  20. An individual's performance on an assessment is compared to a predetermined, external standard, rather than to the performance of others.
    Criterion-referenced scoring
  21. Involve measuring how an individual student's perfomance on a single assessment changes over time.
    Self-referenced scoring approaches
  22. Measures intellectual processes, such as thinking, memorizing, problem solving, analyzing, reasoning, and applying information
    Cognitive Test
  23. Measures an individual's current proficiency in given areas of knowledge or skill
    Achievement Test
  24. Yields multiple scores to facilitate identification of a student's weak and strong areas within the subject area.
    Diagnostic test
  25. commonly used to predict how well an individual is likely to perform in a future situation.
    Aptitude test
  26. an assessment designed to measure affective characterisitics-- mental characterstics related to emotion such as attitude, interest, and value. _____ are often used in educational research and exist in many different formats
    Affective test
  27. an instrument that measures what an individual believes, perceives, or feels about self, others, activities, institutions, or situations.
    Attitude Scales
  28. requires an individual to respond to a series of statements by indicating whether he or she strongly agrees, agrees, is undecided, disagrees, or strongly disagrees
    Likery scale
  29. requires an indiviual to indicate he or her attitude about a topic by selecting a position on a continuum that ranges from one bipolar adjective to another.
    semantic differential scale
  30. may also be used to measure a respondent's attitudes toward self, others, activities, institutions, or situations.
    rating scale
  31. requires participants to select from a list of statements that represent different points of view on a topic.
    Thurstone scale
  32. requires participants to indicate personal likes and dislikes, such as the kinds of activities they prefer
    Interest inventory
  33. includes questions or statements that describe behaviors or characteristics of certain personality traits.
    Personality inventory
  34. a common problem with studies that use self-report instruments is the exisitence of a ______, the tendency of an individual to respond in a particular way to a variety of instruments.
    response set
  35. both affective and cognitive instruments are also subject to
  36. were developed in part to elimnate some of the problems inherent in the use of self-resport and forced-choice measures.
    Projective tests
  37. refers to the degree to wich a test measures what it is supposed to measure and, consequently, permits appropriate interpretation of scores.
  38. The degree to which a test mearsures an intended content area
    content validity
  39. is concerned with whether the test items are relevant to the measurement of the intended content area
    item validity
  40. is concerned with how well the test samples the total content area being tested
    sampling validity
  41. refers to the degree to which a test appears to measure what it claims to measure
    face validity
  42. is determined by relating performance on a test to performance on a second test or other measure
    criterion-related validity
  43. is the degree to which scores on one test are related to scores on a similar, preexisiting test administered in the same time frame or to some other valid measure avaliable at the same time
    concurrent validity
  44. the degree to which a test can predict how well an individual will do in a future situation
    predicitive validity
  45. the variable upon which the prediction is based
  46. in establishing the predicitve validity of a test, the first step is to indentify and carefully define the _____ or predicted variable, which mst be a valid measure of the performance to be predicted
  47. reflects the degree to which a test measures an intended hypothetical construct
    constuct validity
  48. the extent to which an instrument creates harmful effects for the user
    consequential validity
  49. the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it is measuring.
  50. the degree to which scores on the same test are consistent over time.
    Test-retest reliablity/ stability
  51. the degree to which two similar forms of a test produce similar scores from a single group of test takers.
    equivialant/ equivalent-forms reliablity
  52. the measure of internal consistency that involves dividing a test into two halves and correlating the scores on the two halves
    split half reliablity
  53. estimate internal consistency relablity by determining how all items on a test relate to all other test items and to the total test
    Kuder Richardson 20 and Cronbach's alpha
  54. refers to the consistency of two or more inedpendant scores, rather or observers
    interjudge reliability
  55. refers to the consistency of one individual's scoreing, rating, or observing over time.
    intrajudge reliability
  56. an estimate of how often one can expect errors of a given size in an individual's test score
    standard error of measurement
Card Set
Chapter 6