Three things that make people especially difficult to study:
Complexity, variability, and reactivity.
Measurement consists of two tasks:
Defining (process by which properties are linked to operational definitions) and detecting (process by which operational definitions are linked to measures)
Prerequisites for accurate measurement:
Validity, power and reliability.
A frequency distribution can have any shape, but it commonly takes teh shape known as:
Normal Distribution (aka bell curve)
There are two kinds of descriptive statistics:
1. Descriptions of central tendency - the three most common are mean, median, and mode.
2. Descriptions of variability - using range
There are two reasons why naturalistic observation cannot by itself solve the problem of demand characteristics:
- 1. Some of the things psychologists want to observe don't occure naturally.
- 2. Some of the things psychologists want to observe can only be gathered from direct interaction with a person.
Expectations can influence ______ and ______.
Observations and reality.
Although scientific research always begins with the careful measurement of properties, its ultimate goal is:
To typically the discovery of causal relationships between properties
Doing an experiment involves three critical steps:
- 1. Manipulate the independent variable.
- 2. Having created a pattern of variation in one variable, now measure the pattern of variation in another variable - the dependent variable.3. Check if both patterns are synchronized.
An experiment is internally valid when,
- 1. An independent variable has been effectively manipulated.
- 2. Participants have been randomly assigned to the groups that this manipulation created.
- 3. A dependent variable has been measured in an unbiased way with a valid, powerful, and reliable measure.
- 4. A correlation has been observed between the pattern of variation created in the independent variable and the pattern of variation measured in the dependent variable.
Although we can't automatically generalize from nonrandom samples, there are three reasons why this is not a lethal problem for the science of psychology:
- 1. Sometimes generality does not matter. An experimental result can be illuminating even when its generality is severely limited.
- 2. Sometimes generality can be determined.
- 3. Sometimes generality can be assumed. If we had a reason to suspect they would, then the experimental method would provide a way for us to investigate that possibility.
Code of ethics:
- 1. Informed Consent
- 2. Freedom from Coercion
- 3. Protection from Harm
- 4. Risk-Benefit Analysis
- 5. Debriefing