Chapter 7

  1. Cell Fractionation
    Taking Cells Apart
  2. Homogenization
    Disruption of cells using a centrifuge
  3. Pellet
    Larger, heavier structures that become packed at the bottom of a test tube during homogenization
  4. Supernatant
    lighter cell parts, susupended in liquid above pellets during homogenization
  5. Eukaryotic Cells
    membrane bound organelles
  6. Nucleus
    contains genes
  7. Nuclear Envelope
    seperates nucleus from cytoplasm, double membrane with pores
  8. Pore Complex
    protein structure that lines pores
  9. Nuclear Lamina
    protein filament net that maintains nucleus shape
  10. Chromatin
    Stringy DNA, uncondensed
  11. Chromosomes
    Condensed/coiled chromatin
  12. Chromatid
    Intermediate step between chromatin and chromosomes
  13. Nucleolus
    proteins/nucleic acids inside cell, ribosomal RNA synthesized/assembled
  14. Ribosomes
    made of ribosomal RNA and proteins, carry out protein synthesis
  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Extensive membrane labyrinth
  16. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • surface lacks ribosomes, farthest from nucleus
    • - Lipid synthesis (steroids)
    • - Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • - Detoxification
    • - Calcium Ion Pumping - muscle contraction
  17. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • synthesizes secretory proteins
    • makes membrane
  18. Vesicles
    sacs of membrane
  19. Golgi Apparatus
    • modifies, packages, transports proteins
    • - Cis Face - receiving end, near Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • - Trans Face - shipping end
  20. Cisternae
    stacks of flat sacs that make up the golgi apparatus
  21. Lysosomes
    membrane bound sac of hydrolytic enzymes with pH of about 5
  22. Phagocytosis
    cellular eating
  23. Autophagy
    lysosome digests part of a cell
  24. Apoptosis
    signaled cellular death by lysosome eruption
  25. Food Vacuole
    sacs containing food
  26. Contractile Vacuole
    freshwater protists - pump excess water out of cell
  27. Central Vacuole
    plant cells, maintians rigidity
  28. Tonoplast
    membrane enclosing central vacuole
  29. Mitochondria
    cellular respiration, makes ATP
  30. Cristae
    Folds in inner membrane of mitochondria
  31. Mitochondrial Matrix
    inner part of mitochondria
  32. Animal
    lysosomes, centrioles, flagella
  33. Plant
    plasmodesmata, chloroplast, cell wall, central vacuole
  34. Chloroplast
    makes energy, sugar through photosynthesis
  35. Stroma
    fluid filled inner space of chloroplast
  36. Thylakoids
    pancakes in chloroplast
  37. Grana
    stacks of thylakoids in chloroplast
  38. Peroxisome
    enzyme detosifies by transfering hydrogen to oxygen
  39. Cytoskeleton
    microtubules, microfiliments, intermediate filaments
  40. Centrisome
    form fibers to pull centrioles apart
  41. Centriole
    pair of centrisome
  42. Centremere
    hold chromatin together
  43. Micorvilli
    fibers in intestine, absorb nutrients
  44. Myosin
    protein (muscle)
  45. Pseudopodia
    cellular movement by extensions/contractions
  46. Cystoplasmic Streaming
    chloroplast movement to maximize light intake
  47. Middle Lamella
    sticks cellular walls together between cells
  48. Extracellular Matrix
    • outside of cell
    • - Collagen
    • - Proteoglycans
  49. Plasmodesmata
    gaps in plant cells, passageways
  50. Tight Junctions
    membranes fused together
  51. Desmosomes
    anchoring junctions, rivets
  52. Gap Junction
    cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells
  53. Epethelial Tissues
    outer lining
Card Set
Chapter 7
Chapter 7 - Tour of the Cell