What determines "genre"?
- Compositional characteristics
Where does the term "genre" come from?
Comes from French word meaning "family" or "kind".
List some Characterics to Look For when Analyzing Music
- Melodic analysis
- Harmonic analysis
- Performing forces
- - Voicing
- - Accompaniment
- Conducting patterns
What is Monophonic?
One voice only
What is Polyphonic?
More than one voice
What is Homophonic?
Moving in a chordal style
What is Contrapuntal?
Voices moving against each other independently
How does the Motet relate to music history?
- The most important form of early polyphonic music, especially during the Middle Ages and Renaissane.
- Composers of every age have contributed to this genre.
Unaccompanied choral composition based upon a Latin text and designed to be performed in the Roman Catholic service, most often at the Vespers.
Medieval Motet Year
Flemish Motet Years
Baroque Motet Years
Where does the Motet come from?
- From the French word mots, meaning "word."
- A mots was added to the duplum (upper voice) of the clausulae of a chant
- A duplum text was called the motetus (Hence, getting the name motet)
What is the Duplum?
The added voice above the chant melody
What are Clausula?
Sections of organa that occur between major cadential points in the duplum
Give some characteristics of 13th Century Motet
- Grew in length, elaboration, and rhythmic variety
- Became polytextual
- Was used as the cantus firmus in the tenor voice
- Compoers used isorhythm as a unifying device
What does Polytextual mean?
More than one text
What is Isorhythm?
- A single rhythmic phrase pattern repeated, usually in the tenor, throughout the composition
- Color = repeated notes
- Talea = repeated rhythms
What is the Cantus Firmus?
A pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition
What type of motet was developed during the Late 13th Century Motet?
Know as the Franconian motet after Franco of Cologne (active from 1250-1280)
List some characteristics of the 14th Century Motet.
- Ars NovaComposers composed more secular than sacred music
- Use of compositional devices
- Visual appearance of manuscripts often matched the creativity of the music
Messe de Notre Dame
- By Machaut
- Most famous musical composition during the 14th c.
- Expanded the texture to four voices
- First four-part setting of a Mass
Important 14th Century Composers
- Guillaume Machaut (c 1300-1377)
- Francesco Landini (c 1325-1397) - no sacred music
List some characteristics of Early 15th Century Motet
- Allowed for more compositional experimentation and novel methods were employed
- Abandoned polytextuality, using Latin in all voices
- Abandoned the cantus firmus in favor of free composition
- Known as the Burgundian School
15th Century Composers
- Guillaume Dufay (1400-1475)
- John Dunstable (1385-1453)
Quam pulchra es
- By John Dunstable
- Three voices of similar character and nearly equal importance
- Move with same rhythmic pulse (not completely identical, but somewhat homophonic)
- Text syllables occur at the same time, making it clear
- Form determined by text
- Use of the interval of the third in top voice - outlining triad
- Use of fauxbordonUse of cross-relationships
What is Fauxbourdon?
False bass - same triads in 2nd inversion
What is a Cross-Relation?
- English soung
- Major/minor thirds sung together or in succession in different voices
List characteristics of the Flemish Motet.
- Became the genre of choice, because it allowed composers to express their greatest creativity
- Development of increased use of imitation as a compositional device
- Beginning of contrapuntal texture
- "Pervading imitation"
- "Motet style"
- Immediate forerunner of the "High Renaissance Style"
- Points of imitation
- Alternation of contrapuntal and homophonic textures
- Arched phrases
- Overlapping candences
- 4-6 voices is most common
Flemish Motet Composers
- Josquin des Prez (c.1440-1521)
- Jacob Obrecht (c.1450-?)
English School Composers
- Thomas Tallis
- William Byrd
English School Characteristics
- Likes to add in the Major 3rd - full triadic development
- More homophonic than contrapuntal
How the beat is divided (duple or triple)
symbols for common, cut & triple time
- Changing division of the beat
History of the English Church
- Religion based on rulers
- Religious reforms primary result of political differences
- Henry VII excommunicated from Roman church and sets himself as head of the Church of Enland
16th Century Protestant Leaders
- Martin Luther - Lutheran Germany
- Ulrich Zwingli - Swiss Reformist (Germany)
- Jean Calvin - Swiss Reformist (France)
16th Centry Monarchs (Tudors)
- Henry VIII (1509-1547) - Protestant
- Edward VI (1547-1552) - Protestant
- Mary Queen of Scots (1552-1557) - Catholic
- Elizabeth I (1558-1603) - Protestant
English Church Services vs. Catholic
- Mass now becomes the Service with Holy Communion
- Canonical Hours (Offices) evolve to Morning & Evening Prayer
- Book of Common Prayer becomes compulsory for worship format under the Act of Uniformity under King Edward
What makes English Anthems different from Latin Motets?
Text: English rather than Latin
What is a Full Anthem?
Choir sings throughout
What is a Verse Anthem?
Includes soloists and some instrumental accompaniment
What changes were made as a result of the revolt against the Catholic church that created the English Anthem?
- Motet style with English texts
- Re-writing Latin texts of existing motets into English
- Developing more syllabic compositional style (may be distinguished as English)
What was Stained Glass used for in churches?
Used to teach the Bible
What movement did the Chorale come from?
Most important form that came out of the Lutheran movement
Named for the Tudor leaders
What is the Vesper Service?
Evening prayer within the English church
What is significant about Venice?
17th century musical center
- "First Practice"
- Renaissance style (Palestrina)
- "Second Practice"
- Baroque style
- Encouraged more freedom from the rigorous limitations of dissonances and counterpoint characteristic of the prima pratica.
What is an Intonatione?
- Forerunner of prelude
- Sounds improvisatory
- Sets key
- Gets choir ready
- Can be based on tune or freely improvised
Name 3 Centers of Learning
- German composers visit these - return to country with new musical ideas
What is the Chorale form?
- Bar form (AAB)
- A = Stollen
- B = Abgesang (longer than stollen)
Why did hymns begin being used in church services?
- Allowed people to be active in worship
- Brought new dimension to worship
List ways a Hymn Tune can be Varied.
- 3 instruments:
- - Harpsichord
- - Cello
- - Melody instrument (eg. violin)
"Overly ornate or gaudy"
To spin out (phrases, etc.)
- Age of Reason
- - phrases
What religion was prevelent in Northern Germany?
What religion was prevelent in Southern Germany?
Characteristics of the Romantic Period
- Richer, darker, thicker
Characteristics of Romantic Harmonies
- Extreme modulation
- Functional harmony destroyed - Tristan chord
- F * B * D# * G#
- Augmented 4th, 6th, and 9th above a root
Where did the Oxford Movement take place, and what was it?
- Church of England
- Return to pageantry, beauty and art of worship