Choral Lit.

  1. What determines "genre"?
    • Compositional characteristics
    • Function
    • Text
  2. Where does the term "genre" come from?
    Comes from French word meaning "family" or "kind".
  3. List some Characterics to Look For when Analyzing Music
    • Melodic analysis
    • Harmonic analysis
    • Performing forces
    • - Voicing
    • - Accompaniment
    • Conducting patterns
  4. What is Monophonic?
    One voice only
  5. What is Polyphonic?
    More than one voice
  6. What is Homophonic?
    Moving in a chordal style
  7. What is Contrapuntal?
    Voices moving against each other independently
  8. How does the Motet relate to music history?
    • The most important form of early polyphonic music, especially during the Middle Ages and Renaissane.
    • Composers of every age have contributed to this genre.
  9. Motet Definition
    Unaccompanied choral composition based upon a Latin text and designed to be performed in the Roman Catholic service, most often at the Vespers.
  10. Medieval Motet Year
  11. Flemish Motet Years
  12. Baroque Motet Years
  13. Where does the Motet come from?
    • From the French word mots, meaning "word."
    • A mots was added to the duplum (upper voice) of the clausulae of a chant
    • A duplum text was called the motetus (Hence, getting the name motet)
  14. What is the Duplum?
    The added voice above the chant melody
  15. What are Clausula?
    Sections of organa that occur between major cadential points in the duplum
  16. Give some characteristics of 13th Century Motet
    • Grew in length, elaboration, and rhythmic variety
    • Became polytextual
    • Was used as the cantus firmus in the tenor voice
    • Compoers used isorhythm as a unifying device
  17. What does Polytextual mean?
    More than one text
  18. What is Isorhythm?
    • A single rhythmic phrase pattern repeated, usually in the tenor, throughout the composition
    • Color = repeated notes
    • Talea = repeated rhythms
  19. What is the Cantus Firmus?
    A pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition
  20. What type of motet was developed during the Late 13th Century Motet?
    Know as the Franconian motet after Franco of Cologne (active from 1250-1280)
  21. List some characteristics of the 14th Century Motet.
    • Ars Nova
    • Composers composed more secular than sacred music
    • Use of compositional devices
    • Visual appearance of manuscripts often matched the creativity of the music
  22. Messe de Notre Dame
    • By Machaut
    • Most famous musical composition during the 14th c.
    • Expanded the texture to four voices
    • First four-part setting of a Mass
  23. Important 14th Century Composers
    • Guillaume Machaut (c 1300-1377)
    • Francesco Landini (c 1325-1397) - no sacred music
  24. List some characteristics of Early 15th Century Motet
    • Allowed for more compositional experimentation and novel methods were employed
    • Abandoned polytextuality, using Latin in all voices
    • Abandoned the cantus firmus in favor of free composition
    • Known as the Burgundian School
  25. 15th Century Composers
    • Guillaume Dufay (1400-1475)
    • John Dunstable (1385-1453)
  26. Quam pulchra es
    • By John Dunstable
    • Three voices of similar character and nearly equal importance
    • Move with same rhythmic pulse (not completely identical, but somewhat homophonic)
    • Text syllables occur at the same time, making it clear
    • Form determined by text
    • Use of the interval of the third in top voice - outlining triad
    • Use of fauxbordon
    • Use of cross-relationships
  27. What is Fauxbourdon?
    False bass - same triads in 2nd inversion
  28. What is a Cross-Relation?
    • English soung
    • Major/minor thirds sung together or in succession in different voices
  29. List characteristics of the Flemish Motet.
    • 1450-1550
    • Became the genre of choice, because it allowed composers to express their greatest creativity
    • Development of increased use of imitation as a compositional device
    • Beginning of contrapuntal texture
    • "Pervading imitation"
    • "Motet style"
    • Immediate forerunner of the "High Renaissance Style"
    • Points of imitation
    • Alternation of contrapuntal and homophonic textures
    • Arched phrases
    • Overlapping candences
    • 4-6 voices is most common
  30. Flemish Motet Composers
    • Josquin des Prez (c.1440-1521)
    • Jacob Obrecht (c.1450-?)
  31. Roman School Composers
    • Palestrina
    • Vittoria
  32. English School Composers
    • Thomas Tallis
    • William Byrd
  33. English School Characteristics
    • Likes to add in the Major 3rd - full triadic development
    • More homophonic than contrapuntal
  34. Prolation
    How the beat is divided (duple or triple)
  35. Mensuration
    symbols for common, cut & triple time
  36. Sesquialtera
    • 2:3:2
    • Changing division of the beat
  37. History of the English Church
    • Religion based on rulers
    • Religious reforms primary result of political differences
    • Henry VII excommunicated from Roman church and sets himself as head of the Church of Enland
  38. 16th Century Protestant Leaders
    • Martin Luther - Lutheran Germany
    • Ulrich Zwingli - Swiss Reformist (Germany)
    • Jean Calvin - Swiss Reformist (France)
  39. 16th Centry Monarchs (Tudors)
    • Henry VIII (1509-1547) - Protestant
    • Edward VI (1547-1552) - Protestant
    • Mary Queen of Scots (1552-1557) - Catholic
    • Elizabeth I (1558-1603) - Protestant
  40. English Church Services vs. Catholic
    • Mass now becomes the Service with Holy Communion
    • Canonical Hours (Offices) evolve to Morning & Evening Prayer
    • Book of Common Prayer becomes compulsory for worship format under the Act of Uniformity under King Edward
  41. What makes English Anthems different from Latin Motets?
    Text: English rather than Latin
  42. What is a Full Anthem?
    Choir sings throughout
  43. What is a Verse Anthem?
    Includes soloists and some instrumental accompaniment
  44. What changes were made as a result of the revolt against the Catholic church that created the English Anthem?
    • Motet style with English texts
    • Re-writing Latin texts of existing motets into English
    • Developing more syllabic compositional style (may be distinguished as English)
  45. What was Stained Glass used for in churches?
    Used to teach the Bible
  46. What movement did the Chorale come from?
    Most important form that came out of the Lutheran movement
  47. Tudor Motets
    Named for the Tudor leaders
  48. What is the Vesper Service?
    Evening prayer within the English church
  49. What is significant about Venice?
    17th century musical center
  50. Prima Pratica
    • "First Practice"
    • Renaissance style (Palestrina)
  51. Seconda Pratica
    • "Second Practice"
    • Baroque style
    • Encouraged more freedom from the rigorous limitations of dissonances and counterpoint characteristic of the prima pratica.
  52. What is an Intonatione?
    • Introduction
    • Forerunner of prelude
    • Sounds improvisatory
    • Sets key
    • Gets choir ready
    • Can be based on tune or freely improvised
  53. Name 3 Centers of Learning
    • Rome
    • Venice
    • Paris
    • German composers visit these - return to country with new musical ideas
  54. What is the Chorale form?
    • Bar form (AAB)
    • A = Stollen
    • B = Abgesang (longer than stollen)
  55. Why did hymns begin being used in church services?
    • Allowed people to be active in worship
    • Brought new dimension to worship
  56. List ways a Hymn Tune can be Varied.
    • Augmentation
    • Diminution
    • Retrograde
    • Inversion
  57. Basso Continuo
    • 3 instruments:
    • - Harpsichord
    • - Cello
    • - Melody instrument (eg. violin)
  58. Baroque Definition
    "Overly ornate or gaudy"
  59. Fortspinnung
    To spin out (phrases, etc.)
  60. Classical Period
    • 1750-1820
    • Objectivity
    • Secular
    • Age of Reason
    • Balance
    • - phrases
  61. What religion was prevelent in Northern Germany?
  62. What religion was prevelent in Southern Germany?
  63. Characteristics of the Romantic Period
    • 1820-1900
    • Emotional
    • Mythology
    • Richer, darker, thicker
  64. Characteristics of Romantic Harmonies
    • Chromaticism
    • Extreme modulation
    • Functional harmony destroyed - Tristan chord
  65. Tristan Chord
    • F * B * D# * G#
    • Augmented 4th, 6th, and 9th above a root
  66. Where did the Oxford Movement take place, and what was it?
    • Church of England
    • Return to pageantry, beauty and art of worship
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Choral Lit.
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