Drugs CHapter 6 test 2

  1. tolerance
    • defined as either the decreased effectiveness of a drug which results from the continued presence of the drug in the body
    • or
    • the necessity of increased the dose of a drug in order to maintain its effectiveness after repeated administration
  2. cross tolerance
    • tolerance to one drug may well diminish the effect of another drug.
    • is usually seen between members of the same class of drugs
    • all opiate drugs will show this
    • sometimes taken as evidence that the drugs may be producing their effect by common mechanisms
  3. acute tolerance (tachyphylaxis)
    some effects of some drugs may show tolerance after only one or two administration
  4. reverse tolerance or sensitization
    one in a while the effects of a drug increase with repeated administration (reported with marijuana)
  5. pharmacokinetic tolerance ( aka metabolic tolerance)
    • arises from an increase in the rate at which the body is able to metabolize and get rid of a drug
    • is usually the result of enzyme induction primarily in the liver (alcohol dehydrogenase)
  6. pharmacodynamic tolerance (functional or non-associative tolerance)
    • depletion of neurotransmitters critical to the drugs effect (e.g. amphetamine)
    • drugs occupation and saturation of receptor sites, whereby the drug molecules evert their action at the time of occupation of receptor sites (e.g nicotine)
  7. Behavior Tolerance (aka context- specific or associative tolerance)
  8. CS (conditioned stimulus)
    originally neutral does not elicit a response ( e.g bell or tuning fork)
  9. US (unconditioned stimulus)
    a stimulus capable of eliciting a response (e.g. meat)
  10. UR (unconditioned response)
    response elicited by the US (e.g. salvation)
  11. CR (conditioned response)
    response elicited by the CS alone after previous pairing with the US (e.g. salvation)
  12. drug dependence
    general term indicating that a person's drug use has led to the users experiencing uncontrollable and unpleasent mood states that in turn lead the user to use the drug complusively despite obvious adverse consequences
  13. substate dependence and drug addiction
    terms synonymouse with drug dependence
  14. drug addiction (according to the world health org)
    a state of periodic or chronic intoxication detrimental to the individual and/or society produced by the repeated consumption of a drug.
  15. primary psycholigical dependence
    refers to a strong compulsion or desire to experience the effects of a drug because it produces pleasure or reduces psychic discomfort
  16. frequency of responding for the drug vs. an inert substance
    habitual the drug taking can become
    Two things that can be measured in phycological dependence
  17. physical dependence
    involves a state (termed an abstinence syndrome) characterized by physical disturbances that occur when the administration of a drug is suspoended after prolonged use or its actions are terminated by the adminstration of a specific antagonist
  18. plasma half-life
    the time that it takes to eliminate half the drug from the bloodstream
  19. A
    if given infrequently cessation of its use will not likely resuly in abstinence
  20. B
    however if taken frequently so that the CNS is constinusly exposed to the drug its withdrawl will likely result in a relatively intence abstinence syndrome that dissipates fairly quickly (that is, over a Few days)
  21. C
    if the dose is increased the abstinence syndrome is more intense
  22. A drug with a short plasma half-life
    plasma half life (e.g. 4 hours) a relatively intence but short lasting behavioral effect
  23. the duration and intensity of an abstinence syndrome highly correlated to the duration and intensity of a drugs direct effects
    correlation in physical dependence
  24. DRL (delayed response latency)
    the animal in a skinner boy is reinforced only if it waits for a fixed period of time between responses
  25. Atropine
    is a drug that blocks secretion of saliva and causes a dry mouth.
  26. A drug with a long plasma half-life
    half-life that induces relatively weak but long lasting behavioral effects (e.g. 24 hours)
  27. D
    if taken frequently enough so that the CNS is continuosly exposed to the drug its withdrawl is likely to result in a relatively weak abstinence syndrome that dissipates slowly ( that is, over a few weeks)
  28. E
    the more frequently a drug is administered and the greater the dose, the more extensive the abstinence syndrome will be.
  29. secondary psychological dependence
    develops after physical dependence when the person seeks out an administers a drug to alleviate fear or anxiety
  30. physical dependence
    once...... exsists and the person becomes familiar with the symptoms of abstinence the person may develop a craving for the drug that is based upon the persons fear on anxiety of experienceing the abstinence syndrome
  31. 1. Genetic influence
    2. sociological influence
    3. sequence of stages of drug involvement
    4. condtioning factors
    Factors of dependence 4
  32. genetic influences
    appear to be nearly universally important in determining sensitivity to drugs and many reports have been punlished documenting genetic differences in sensitivity or toxic responces to almost all drugs subject to abuse
  33. sociological influences
    • 1. users selling of drugs
    • 2. drug availabilty
    • 3. significant others labeling of the person as deviant
    • 4. peer influence
    • 5. early childhood deviance
    • 6. poor school influence
    • 7. weak family influence
    • 8. nonreligious orientation
  34. sequence of stages of drug involvement
    • 1. the use of more socially accepted substances like tobacco and beer
    • 2. "hard" liquor
    • 3. marijuana
    • 4. other illicit drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and LSD
  35. 1. denial
    2. enabling
    two psychological processes generally prevent stopping or seeking help:
  36. enabling ( co-dependency)
    any action taken to rescue a person from the harmful consequences of their drug use
  37. the person must recognize or be convinced that his or her drug use is a problem

    he or she must have the incentive to change

    there two condtions need not be met before treatment can begin
    the essental keys to any effective treatment for durg abuse and dependence are
  38. state dependent learning ( drug-dissociative learning, drug-state learning)
    learning under one set of condtions (drug or nondrug) does not complerely transfer to another set of conditions
  39. memory
    1. drug, drug
  40. no memory
    2. drug saline ( state dependent learning)
  41. no memory
    3. saline drug ( state-dependent learning)
  42. memory
    4. saline saline
Card Set
Drugs CHapter 6 test 2
chapter 6